[hist-analytic] Elatically-Karulizing Pirots Karulize Elatically
Jlsperanza at aol.com
Jlsperanza at aol.com
Mon Feb 9 06:30:04 EST 2009
-- true by virtue of ...? "Not true"?
Post-modern Grice (Was: The analytic-synthetic distinction
A ps on Grice, short as I can make it.
I did disucss Grice's two examples of 'tautology' in 'Logic and
Conversation' (WOW, ii)
War is war.
Women is women.
These are really of the form Frege would have as (x)Fx ) Fx. So it's not
really 'tautology' as per truth-table. We need an interpretation, a
class-overlap, class assignment, individual assignment, interpretation of ')',
interpretation of '(x)' -- as substitutional, say.
In any case what interests is is Grice's judgement: they are
_uninformative_. This is a nudge (if that's the word) to Frege, Russell, and logicism -- not
To see why they are uninformative (they don't speak about the world) we need
further to buy, perhaps, Grice's idea of conversation as the purposeful
exchange of conversational moves that will _influence_ others by informing them
about the 'state' of the world.
The example of truly analytic, in Grice/Strawson is
My three-year old son is an adult.
They go to consider, "Avoid metaphorical interpretation here" and so they
end up with the reply to this being "Inconceivable!". Since there _is_ a
possible reply to an analytically _false_ sentence, they gather there could be a
similar one ('Conceivable!') to an analytically true one. Ditto, the reply to
synthetic sentences is either "I don't believe that!" in the case of false
ones of "I do believe that!" in case of true ones (S. R. Bayne keeps 'In defense
of a dogma' in the archives).
Two more points, while I say that my views and this are formed by Grice's
"Life and Opinions" as to the defense of the analytic/synthetic distinction.
* -- IDIOLECTAL meaning. B. Aune discusses this when he notes that English
is highly spoken in the world today (I mean spoken by a few). Grice saw this
problem, and in 'Conceptual Analysis and the Province of Philosophy' but also
in the more charming "Oxford philosophy" which he delivered at Wellesey (of
all places) he speaks of a concept having 'extension' for one speaker only.
Thus 'bachelors are unmarried males' may be analytically false to a student at
Wellesey who is about to become a bachelor and she is not a male -- nor
unmarried, as the case transpired.
* -- Grice loved Carnap's "Pirots karulize elatically", and uses 'pirot'
extensively. I would say that, 'by virtue of its form', it's not analytic. Of
course if we go to define what types of pirots we are talking about, or
defining the pirot in the subject-position, then it may become thus. But the change
needed would amount rather to state, rather uninformatively:
elatically karulizing pirots karulize elatically
which again shows that 'analytic' can be shown to be thus 'by virtue of its
(extended logical) form'. What about the other implicit sentences, of other
forms. "Unless they are not given the proper expansion, treat them as
* Then there's really analytic sentences of the type Levinson discusses in
"Either he will be fired, or he won't"
This is analytic by virtue of its logical form, and thus a correlate would be
Either pirots karulize elatically, or they don't.
(provided they exist? Not even)
Again, these uninformative 'tautologies' get an implicature which is
_different_ for each case. The expansion for "My three little year son is an adult"
properly expanded does not speak about the world. But does it not at least
express that the utterer has a child? With children like that! (*expansion: My
three little year son-non adult is an adult). The child is what my aunt
would call a 'contradiction' in terms!
I think it's Harnish who considers expansion of analytic predicates to tease
"I met a female adult yesterday"
in lieu of the shorter, "I met a woman". Implicature: "not really
attractive, as women go".
But "I met a female adult yesterday" _is_ synthetic (He could have stayed
indoors and avoid the proceedings). A truly analytic of this kind will be
sentece 3 in the second speaker's reply -- otiose if ever a sentence was).
-- "Mary is not really a woman; she is an adult female"
-- I disagree. Mary, who is an adult female, is an adult female, and thus a
woman. In fact, all females are females, and all women are women.
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