[hist-analytic] An Experiment On A Bird In The Air Pump

Jlsperanza at aol.com Jlsperanza at aol.com
Sun Jun 14 12:50:35 EDT 2009


Of Grice on Strawson's truth-value gaps, citing  Johnson:

"There are objections against a plenum,
and  objections against a vacuum; yet one of them must be true."


Does  Natural Logic Abhor A Vacuum?

vacuum, plural 'vacua'. Cfr. denotatum:  denotata.
denotans.
This denotans denotates a vacuum.

"Having his head as full of vacuum as his small proportion of brains was
capable  of."
Poor  Robin
"A vacuum was the only thing she could be trusted to  handle with safety."
Judge.
"Nothing is  said to be empty, but when you look for a fullness in  it."
Preston
"The hours of thoughtful vacuity I had  spent."
A. Hope, My Schoolboy
"In this age, when men may say any  thing if they have but rhetoric
to fill up the vacuities." -- Baxter

"This Art is very  profitable: to prove, that Vacuum, or Emptines is not in
the world."  DEE.

Further to our discussion on 'vacuity', some quotations which I hope  will
be of some  interest."

The first examination should go to Set-Theoretical Considerations -- basic
sense, I trust. Between 'empty' domain and non-empty domain. Vis a vis
Grice's  doubts about the 'explanatory' adequacy of extensionalism. Quotes
ordered  chronologically:

1903 RUSSELL Princ. Math.
"A propositional function  is said to be _null_
when it is false for all values of x;
and the class  of x's satisfying the function is called
_the null-class_, being in fact a  class of no terms."

"Non-empty" made its OED appearance two years  later:

1905 Amer. Math. Soc.
"[...] is a _non-empty_  sub-class in K."

1906 YOUNG & YOUNG
Theory of Sets of  Points 288
"The _null-set_  [...] contains no point."

1932 LEWIS  & LANGFORD Logic
"The universal function is expressible
as
"p v  ~p".
The null-function is the negative of this.

1937 Mind
"There  is another _non-empty_ sub-set ...
of sentences of C2 which are nonsensical
but not -nonsensical.

1937 Symbolic Logic
"A set or class is  said to be
_empty_
if there is no element of it."

1941 HELMER  Tarski
"We have ... in the calculus of relations
two special relations,
the universal relation  and
the _null_ relation,
the first of  which holds between any two individuals,
and the second between
none."


1946 WEIL Geom.
"The bunch of varieties defined by an
_empty set_ of varieties
will be called
_empty_."

1955 PRIOR  Logic
"Both the domain and the converse domain of
_the null relation_ are  _the null class_.


1965 CAWS Sci.
"The restriction must be added  that
the domain be
_non-empty_."

1966 BEER Decision
"This  does not matter; it simply means
that the complementary set has no elements  and
this is called
_a null set_."

1966 HU Topology
"A  function f: X  Y is said to be one-to-one or
injective iff, for every  point y  Y,
the inverse *image* f-1(y) is
either
_empty_ or a  singleton."


1996 CONWAY Numbers
"If you have any collection of
_nonempty_ sets
of things,
you can make a new set by choosing just
one from each set of the given collections."


1981 CHANDOR  Microprocessors
"_Null string_, a string with no characters. Also known as  _empty_ string."

1991 Econ.
"The _class_ of reasons ... for choosing  an option a must
*not* be _null_.


For broad use of 'empty' to  mean 'syncategorematic':
1892 SWEET Gram.
"When a form-word  is entirely devoid of meaning, we may call it an
_empty_ word, as opposed to
*full* words such as "earth" and "round"."

1953 ENTWISTLE Aspects of  Lang.
"Chinese ... makes considerable use of ‘empty words’,
that  is of auxiliaries in the broad sense of the term,
which includes  prepositions as well as subordinate
members of the verbal  complex."

--- cf. 'flatus vocis'.
1968 KRATOCHVÍL Chinese Lang.
"Traditional Chinese linguists considered practically
all minimal forms,
beside what would be called nouns,
as ‘empty words’."

Other uses  of 'vacuous':

As applied to a 'life':

1897 Review of Rev. 37

"There are many rich people who ... lead such mean and vacuous  lives."

E.g. Marmaduke Bloggs, climbing up the Everest on  hands and knees and
turning out not to exist -- Grice, "Vacuous  Names".

As applied to a 'look':
"He was rather a vacuous-looking young  man."
‘H. S. MERRIMAN’ Grey Lady.
As applied to a style:
1879 HOWELLS

"Mrs. Erwin wrote an epistolary style exasperatingly _vacuous_ and
diffuse."


In the phrase, 'in vacuo' -- in the 'void'. Could a  Universe of Discourse,
to use Venn's phrase, exist 'in vacuo'?
1660 EVELYN
"various experiments in vacuo."

1716 CHEYNE
"Supposing a  body moving in vacuo."

1812 DAVY
"A wire of platina may be preserved  in a state of intense ignition in
vacuo."

1937 [see ELECTRONIC a. 1].
1942 Tee Emm
"It is more correct to regard a running fix as
a means  of approximating the position ‘in vacuo’
so to speak, when more precise  methods are unobtainable.

1955 Times
"Whatever meaning people might  ascribe to the word ‘tramp’ in vacuo."

(iii) Was Grice a  'vacuist'?

1660 BOYLE
"Those spaces which the Vacuists would have to  be empty,
because they are manifestly devoid of Air, and all the grosser  bodies."

1664 POWER
"The second Hypothesis 's of the  Vacuists."

1682 CREECH
"[Hobbes] adds another argument,
which is  of no force against the Vacuists."


-- "On what there isn't, or How to  Vacuefy System Q"

1727 BAILEY
"To Vacuefy, to make void or  empty."

You vacuefy "Pegasus" by killing him. R. Martin, the semanticist,  called
his cat Pegasus just to tease Quine.

1828 CRAIGIE
"Vacuefying  apparatus ... found in the upper surface
of the head of the sucking  fish."

1432 Higden
"Philip should destroy soon the city if that it  were vacuate and void of
discrete men."

1617 MIDDLETON
"I cannot see  that vacuum in your blood".
(which is just as well).

1630 LENNARD
"It were a vacuum, a defect, a deformity too absurd in nature ...
that  betwixt two extremes ... there should be no middle."

But a middle value  -- a truth value gap -- is something we may
unnecessarily _mind_.

1670  HACKET
"Commonly they misspent that triennial probation,
and left upon  that place a vacuum of doing little or nothing."

1710 PALMER
"'Tis  infinitely pleasing to observe there has been no Vacuum in our
Life."

1772 Phil.
"It should therefore seem that the larks from the more  adjacent parts
crowd in to supply the vacuum occasioned by the London  Epicures."

1829 MARRYAT
"The vacuum occasioned by my mother's  death."
When "Elizabeth" became a _vacuous name_, in Grice's  parlance.

1846 GROTE
"They filled up the vacuum of the unrecorded  past."
Or how to Fill Up "Pegasus".

1879 ELLIOT
"So Martin Kerr  ... was left with
a sheer, hopeless vacuum
to fill up as best he  could."


1903 Hardwareman
"A decision of ... serious import as  regards the operations of
the Vacuum Cleaner Co."

This above relates  to Grice's ontological marxism: Any entity welcomed,
provided they help with the  housework.

VACUITY proper:
1546 LANGLEY
"Epicurus ... puts  two Causes Atoms or Motes
and Vacuity or emptiness."

1597  MIDDLETON
"For him ... the Horizons and hemispheres
obey, and  winds the fillers of vacuity."

1626 DONNE
"Water will clamber up  hills and
air will sink down into Vaults rather than admit  Vacuity."

Some people.

1644 DIGBY
"Aristotle has demonstrated  that there can be
no motion in vacuity."

1700 KEN
"Some Dotards  dream'd..That Atoms..Should rise from nothing in Vacuity."

1728 CHAMBERS
"Vacuum, but mere Space, or vacuity, is supposed to be extended; therefore
it is material."

1829 Chapters
"A large portion of interspersed  vacuity is sufficient for all purposes."

1860. OUTRAM
"She beats the  taeds that live in stones an' fatten in vacuity."

1603 HOLLAND
"There  is no voidness or vacuity in nature."

1660 COKE
"So the laws of  nature will admit of many things contrary to nature,
rather than endure a  vacuity."

1704 RAY
"Nature's abhorrence of a Vacuity."

1631  DONNE
"In the first vacuity, when thou wast nothing he sought thee so early  as
in Adam."

1655 FULLER
"To prevent a vacuity, (the detestation of  nature,) a new plantation was
soon substituted in their room."


1579  BAKER
"Some bones are embossed for to enter, and other have vacuity that
receives."

1651 BIGGS
"The vacuity of the depleted veins does attract  the blood beneath."

1822 GOOD
"This vacuity of the arteries upon  death was one of the objections urged
very forcibly by the ancients   against the circulation of the blood."

1660 BROOKE  "Leading him to  a dark deep well ... but terrified with the
vacuity and darkness, he  retired."

1759 JOHNSON
"The princess and her maid,..seeing nothing to  bound their prospect,
considered themselves as in danger of
being lost  in a dreary vacuity."

1775 JOHNSON
"Madam, I do not like to come down  to vacuity."

1818 SCOTT
"Such sunbeams as forced their way through  the narrow Gothic lattices
and lost themselves in the vacuity of the vaults  behind."

1842 ROGERS
"The grim spectres who stalk from desolation to  desolation,
through the dreary vacuity of chill and comfortless  chambers."

1891 HARDY
"As he gazed, a moving spot intruded on the  white vacuity of its
perspective."

1664 EVELYN
"But 'tis cheaper to  supply the vacuity of such accidental decays by a new
plantation."

1844  MRS. BROWNING
"To fill the vacant thrones of me and mine, which affront  Heaven with
their vacuity."

1603 FLORIO
"To make them feel the  emptiness, vacuity, and no worth of man."

1640 REYNOLDS
"The most  general cause of desire is a vacuity, indigence,
and self-insufficiency of  the soul.

1690 NESSE
"They have the most light to discover  to  themselves  their own vacuity
and nothingness."

1806 KNOX
"It  would follow that..the great central appetite of intellectual man was
abandoned  to the self-torture of irremediable vacuity."

1850 CARLYLE
"Here is  an abyss of vacuity in our much-admired opulence."

1885 PATER
"It  was an experience which came in the midst of a deep sense of vacuity
in  things."

For Grice: "It was an experience which came in the midst of a  deep sense
of vacuity in names" (apres Marius The Epicurean)

1711 KEN
"Thou all-sufficient art, and I Am nothing but vacuity."

1751  JOHNSON
"Think on the misery of him who is condemned to cultivate  barrenness  and
ransack vacuity."

1776  Let. to Mrs. Thrale
"I know that a whole system of hopes, and designs, and expectations,   is
swept away at once, and  nothing left but  bottomless  vacuity."

1819 WIFFEN
"The drear Vacuity of sorrow on thee lay."

1840 CARLYLE
"Having once parted with Reality, he tumbles helpless  in Vacuity."

1888 FITZGERALD
"In my lonely blue chamber,  there  is a sort of vacuity for thought, the
world is shut out."

1594 HOOKER
"Men are at the first without understanding or knowledge at all.
Nevertheless from this utter vacuity they grow by degrees."

1661 K. W.  Conf.
"Which will avail him little; but to be an indicium  of his own  vacuity
and emptiness of all solidity."

1707 FLOYER
"The pulse, if it  be weak, indicates vacuity and fear."

1773 MORE
"Though more to folly  than to guilt inclined, a drear vacuity possess'd my
mind."

1818 FERRIER
"Imputing to fatigue of body, what in fact was the consequence of   mental
vacuity,  he proposed returning home."

1854 MARION HARLAND
"She heard and saw all that passed;  but in place of heart and sense,  was
a dead vacuity."

1885 CLODD
"We cannot so far lull our faculty of  thought as to realise  the mental
vacuity of the savage."

1760  STERNE
"That perplexed vacuity of eye which puzzled souls generally stare  with."

1784 COWPER
"'Tis thus the understanding takes repose in  indolent vacuity of thought."

1829 COBBETT
"A great fondness for  music is a mark of ... great vacuity of mind."

Oops, above. (I can see  that in Sir Paul McCartney)

1863 COWDEN
"He frequents low dissolute  haunts from no graver cause
than idleness and vacuity of mind."

Not  the swimming-pool library!

1879 FARRAR
"We may be sure that the  vacuity of thought in which most men live was for
Saul a thing  impossible."

But not for Paul (Grice).

1601 CORNWALLIS
"Which  vacuity of virtue at that time will breed more
terror to him then darkness  to children."

1642 ROGERS Naaman
"Christ is a sufficient store to a  poor soul in the vacuity of other
things."

1698 COCKBURN
"She was in  an admirable vacuity of all desire of knowing."

1782 BURNEY
"When he  is quite tired of his existence, from a total vacuity of ideas,
he must  affect a look of absence."

1792 YOUNG
"There is as much character in  his air and manner  as there is vacuity of
it in the countenance of St.  Etienne."

1822 GOOD
"To contemplate the body and mind at birth as  consisting equally of  a
blank or vacuity of impressions."

1619  FOTHERBY
"The soul cannot have in it, any true joy unless the same be  founded,
both in security, and in confidence, and in tranquillity.   All which do imply
a vacuity from fear."

1648 SANDERSON
"By the  evenness of the mind and the vacuity from those secret lashes that
haunt a  guilty conscience."

1665 GOODWIN
"A well-grounded vacuity or freedom  from all troublesome, distracting, and
tormenting fears and cares."

1607  Scholast.
"From this preposterousness of the Cross setting the sense before  the
spirit, come we to his vacuity for his inward devotion."

1817 JAS.  MILL
"A whole race of men..whom the pain of vacuity forced upon some
application of mind."

1875 HOPE
"The hours of thoughtful vacuity I had  spent."

1541 COPLAND
"Some bones are enbossed for to enter, and other  have vacuities that
receive."

1607 TOPSELL Four-f. Beasts 330
"That  so those places being emptied the vacuity may be replenished with
better  blood."

1659 HAMMOND
"The earth sinks down and fills up the  vacuities."

1677 GREW
"There are vacuities in water. That is to say,  that all the parts of water
are not contiguous."

1731 MEDLEY
"Those  pieces become as hard as flints, and altogether as smooth and
solid; not the  least vacuity or interstice being to be seen."

1770 Phil. Trans.
"Every particle of light that issues from the sun, must leave a spherical
vacuity of one millionth of one millionth of an inch diameter."

1800  Ibid.
"A wad was placed over the powder, dry sand superadded, to fill all
vacuities."

1840 Jrnl. Engl. Agric. Soc.
"Water in descending seeks  the nearest vacuity."

1872 DANA
"The polyp has no blood-vessels but  the vacuities among the tissues."

1643 SIR T. BROWNE
"When this  sensible world shall be destroyed, all shall then be here as it
is now there, an  empireal Heaven, a quasi vacuity."

1667 MILTON
"That seat soon  failing, he meets a vast vacuity."

1685 BOYLE
"Whilst their  numberless atoms wildly roved in their infinite vacuity."

1795 W. BLAKE
"The eeep fled away on all sides, and left an unformed dark  vacuity."

1624 WOTTON
"To place the columns precisely one over  another, that so the solid may
answer to the solid, and the vacuities to the  vacuities."

1655 FULLER
"The great pillars thereof are wreathed with  indentings; which vacuities,
if formerly filled up with brass,..added much to  the beauty of the
building."

1726 LEONI
"The vacuities which are  left between the back..of the Arch, and the
upright of the wall."

1775  JOHNSON
"Round which there are narrow cavities or recesses formed by small
vacuities or by a double wall."

1823 P. NICHOLSON
"Rooms are the  interior vacuities or habitable parts of a building."

1845  Florist
"An ingeniously contrived trap for earwigs, leaving a vacuity for the
reception of the insects."

1870 ROLLESTON
"By a vacuity in the skull  walls for the blood to pass out from the
lateral sinus."

1658 SIR T.  BROWNE
"Whereby the Elephants passing the vacuities of the Hastati, might  have
run upon them."

1757 BURKE
"The Scots and Picts rushed with  redoubled violence into this vacuity."

1863 HAWTHORNE
"The  market-place of the town is a rather spacious and irregularly shaped
vacuity."

1822 GOOD
"He has also seen others reproduce a smaller or  larger number of teeth to
supply vacuities progressively produced in earlier  life."

1849 SOMERVILLE
"Those dark vacuities called ‘coal sacks’ by  the ancient navigators,
which are so numerous between  Centauri and   Antaris."

1867 CHAMBERS
"The central vacuity is not quite  dark."

1631 DONNE
A filling of all former vacuities, a supplying of  all emptinesses in our
souls.

1651 BAXTER
"In this age, when men may  say any thing if they have but rhetoric
to fill up the  vacuities."

1682 OWTRAM
"Our Saviour filled up the vacuities  that Moses had left in moral duties."

1732 POPE
"Each want of  happiness by hope supplied, and each vacuity of sense by
pride."

1776  ADAM SMITH
"Whatever vacuities this excessive circulation occasioned in the  necessary
coin of the kingdom."

1841 EMERSON
"But yesterday I saw a  dreary vacuity in this direction in which now I see
so much."

1850  KINGSLEY
"Oh those Sabbaths when there was nothing to fill up the long  vacuity but
books of which I did not understand a word."

1648 BEAUMONT
"That with those huge adored vacuities, which puff the World up with their
frothy flood, even massy Gold must counted be."

1665 MANLEY
"The  Prince, by the Concessions of these Honorary Vacuities, redeeming the
War from  delay."

1843 CARLYLE
"Thou for one wilt not again vote for any quack,  do honour to any
edge-gilt vacuity in man's shape."

----  Finally,

"VACUOUS" proper -- cfr. Grice, "Vacuous Names" in  Davidson/Hintikka:
-- as applied to 'birth':

1651 SMALLWOOD Commend.  Verses to W. Cartwright's Wks.,
"False vacuous births in every street we  see:
But seldom, true and ripened, such as He."

-- as applied to the  'third dimension':
1655 STANLEY
"It were impossible for one body to make  another to recede,
if the triple dimension were vacuous."

--- "as  applied to 'space':
1677 GALE
"Will they say that these atoms were  introduced
or produced in this vacuous space in time?"

1794 SULIVAN
He contended, that thunder or sound would not be able to pass through
walls,
unless there were some vacuous spaces in those bodies."
1860  TYNDALL
"The water is not able to fill it,
hence a vacuous space must be  formed in the cell."

-- as applied to 'nature' of all substances.
1813  BUSBY Lucretius
"He notices many natural circumstances which
demonstrate  the vacuous natures of all substances."

-- As applied to 'receiver'.
This is closest to Grice's "Vacuous Name" -- where name is jocularly seen
as  a receiver or recipient which can be filled.
1669 BOYLE Contin.
"I put  Pears bruised into a vacuous Reciever."

As applied to who knows:
1842  E. A. PARNELL

"The difference between its weight when containing the  gas, and when
vacuous."

As applied to 'bubbles':
1862 GROVE
"No  air is given off from the bubbles, so they seem to be  vacuous."
-- but they are  not?

As applied to 'globe':
1892 Photogr.
"In incandescent lamps  the electric current heats up a carbon filament
inclosed in a vacuous  globe."

As applied to a bract"
1866 Treas. Bot.
"Bracts which  usually support flowers are said to be vacuous when they
have no flower in their  axils."

As applied to 'air':
1877 MORLEY
"As the flies of a summer  day dart from point to point in the vacuous air."

As applied to a  snob:
1848 THACKERAY
"A vacuous, solemn snob."

As applied to  'mind':
1883 Standard
"The absence of anxiety leaves their minds  vacuous."

As applied to 'person':
1889 Times 26 Oct. 9/1
"That  gift of oppressive familiarity which by
some vacuous people is taken to  indicate sterling sense."

As applied to 'look' (or 'man'):
1895 ‘H. S.  MERRIMAN’
"He was rather a vacuous-looking young man."

As  applied to 'leer':
1855 THACKERAY
"With that vacuous leer which  distinguishes his lordship."

As applied to 'eyes':
1858 O. W. HOLMES
"These negative faces with their vacuous eyes and stony  lineaments."

As applied to 'expression:

This may connect with  Grice's "Vacuous Names". For surely he discusses
'vacuous descriptions' later.  And names and descriptions make up for
'expression' -- e.g. Searle, Meaning and  Expression.

1873 BLACK
"There was a cheery, vacuous, smiling  expression on his round face."

As applied to 'eyes':

1879 MCCARTHY  Own Times v. I. 116
"A huge white-headed, vacuous-eyed man was to be  seen."

As applied to 'desire'
1870 SWINBURNE
"The vacuous  monotonous desire and discontent, the fitful and febrile
beauty of Alfred de  Musset."

As applied to 'style':
1879 HOWELLS
"Mrs. Erwin wrote an  epistolary style exasperatingly vacuous and diffuse."

As applied to  'day':
1872 MORLEY
"It cannot for ever be tolerable that the mass should  wear away their
lives in unbroken toil without hope or aim, in order that the  few may live
selfish and vacuous days."

As applied to 'life':
1897  Review of Rev. 37
"There are many rich people who lead such mean and vacuous  lives."

Cfr.

1648 W. MOUNTAGUE
In that vacuousness the winds  and vapors of tediousness and displicence
rise.

1816 J. GILCHRIST
The mistiness and vacuousness of abstract expression.

1860 All Year  Round No. 88. 283
He had a broad fair face, rather vacuously good natured in  its ordinary
expression.

1880 Daily Tel.
So there he stood, with his  hands in his pockets,..gazing vacuously at the
fighting and rough  play.

1572 J. JONES
Galen wills to vacuate, cleanse, or empty, that  which is evil.

1607 T. WALKINGTON
That so the superfluous humidity  of his stomach may be vacuated.

1657 TOMLINSON
Senny,  Rhabarb..vacuate phlegm also.

1760 Ann. Reg.
We have..portable  ventilators which are continually employed in vacuating
the foul air from our  hold.

1651 WITTIE
If he that hath been once abundantly vacuated, must  necessarily relapse
into the same disease.

1684 Bonet's Merc.
When  the Heart-burn is violent, we must not vacuate the whole Body.

1765  Phil. Trans. LV. 84
It's so well vacuated by boiling the quicksilver in the  tube,
that I depend on its being luminous after being carried so  far.


1654 GAYTON
Toboso too was flesh and blood; and how If some  great Prince should
vacuate her vow?

1681 HICKERINGILL
Which Law  vacuates and makes null and void all Laws of Man, ipso facto,
that are made to  the contrary.

1709 MRS. MANLEY
There can be no Laws contrived..but  what they can vacuate.

1684 Col. Rec. Pennsylv.
They may act  irregularly, to the vacuating and Insecurity of such acts and
Judgments of ye  said Courts.


1541 COPLAND
Of bones, they that have the  embossynges and vacuations be they that make
the joints.

1590 BARROUGH
Through abundant sweets, and all other immoderate vacuations.

1607  TOPSELL
The vacuation of blood & seede, is a dubble charge to nature.

1635 A. READ
The vacuation of the humor impacted in the part.

1657 TOMLINSON
Which distinction is taken from the manner of  excretion or vacuation.

1721 BAILEY, Vacuation, an  emptying.


1611 FLORIO,
Vacuation, emptiness, vacuity, voidness.

1660 Contemp. Hist. Irel.
They very joyful handling the same [a  trunk], found it promising noe
vacuation, but very heavy.

1656 RIDGLEY
The vital spirits..are consumed by heat, malignity, vacuatives,  grief.

1766 G. CANNING Anti-Lucretius
Wherever a spot vacuitous is  found, there you must own that Matter feels a
bound.

1550 CRANMER
Natural reason abhorrs vacuum, that is to say,
that there should be any  empty place, wherein no substance should be.

1570 DEE Math.
This Art  is very profitable: to prove, that vacuum, or emptiness is not in
the world.

1626 BACON
"The more gross of the tangible parts do contract and  serve themselves
together to avoid vacuum."

1657 TRAPP
"For beyond  the moveable Heavens,
Aristotle says there is neither body, nor time, nor  place, nor vacuum."

1676 Poor Robin
"Having his head as full of vacuum
as his small proportion of brains was capable of."

1795 BLAKE
"Round the flames roll,..mounting on high Into Vacuum, into nonentity,
Where  nothing was."

1843 Penny
"The astronomical argument, therefore, in  favour of absolute vacuum has
fallen."

1607 BREWER
"First shall the  whole machine of the world return to chaos,
then the least vacuum be found  in the universe."

1638 WILKINS
"To dispute against Democritus, who  thought, that
the World was made by
the casual concourse of Atoms in a  great Vacuum."

1714 Let. from Layman
"A Government can't rightfully  restrain a Man's professing the Belief of a
Vacuum, or a Plenum."

1763  JOHNSON
"There are objections against a plenum,
and objections against a  vacuum; yet one of them must be true."

1865 GROTE
"Proceeding upon  his hypothesis of atoms and vacua as the only objective
existences."

1884  F. TEMPLE
"The reasons why Nature abhors a vacuum were  discovered."

1652 FRENCH
"So much air being spent, there would of  necessity follow a vacuum."

1660 BOYLE
"The Interest of the air, in  hindering the descent of the Quick-silver, in
the famous Experiment touching a  Vacuum."

1713 DERHAM
"The Ear-wig..and some other Insects would seem  unconcerned at the Vacuum
a good while, and lie as dead; but revive in the Air."

1758 REID tr. Macquer's Chym. I. 299
"The air contained therein is  condensed, and leaves a vacuum, which the
external air..tends to occupy."

1829 Nat. Philos.,
"Count Rumford proved the passage of heat through  a Torricellian vacuum,
that is, the space left at the top of a barometer by the  mercury falling."

1860 MAURY
"At the height of 80 or 90 miles there  is a vacuum far more complete than
any which we can produce by any  air-pump."

1872 COOKE
"Alcohol expands more slowly into the aqueous  vapor than it would into a
vacuum."

1777 Phil. Trans.
"That the vacua  be as nearly as possible complete."

1832  BREWSTER
"The plates,  being raised or depressed by the voluntary muscles, form so
many  vacua."

1910 Judge
"A vacuum was the only thing she could be trusted  to handle with safety."

1922 Hotel World
"I have three vacuums going  all day."

1960 Farmer
"Is it better to have a powerful or a handy  cleaner? That has always been
a problem when choosing a vacuum."

1977 New  Yorker
"Green Haven's deputy superintendent of administration was  preoccupied
with the size of the wet-dry vacuums being used to clean the prison  kitchen."

1589 NASHE
"The Scythians, who swaddle themselves  straighter, to the intent no vacuum
being left in their entrails."

1635  RANDOLPH
"Unnatural vacuum, can your emptiness answer to some slight  questions?"

1700 T. BROWN
"He made a Dive into my Pocket, but  encountring a Disappointment, Rub'd
off, Cursing the Vacuum."

1758 J. S.  Le Dran
"I discovered a Vacuum upon the intercostal Muscles, from whence  about a
spoonful of matter was discharged."

1791 WALPOLE
"I shall  fill my vacuum with some lines that General Conway has sent me."

1838  MORRIS
"The Dandy's head, A vacuum dead, Ne'er tries for thought to  seek."

971 Blickl.
"The Virgin Mary wæs ‘ful’ cweden næs ‘æmetuu’."

1300 Beket
"The school al empty was: and no brain therein believed."

1386 CHAUCER
"Almost all empty is a ton."

1514 BARCLAY
"With empty belly and simple poor array."

1599 SHAKES.
"The  empty vessel makes the greatest sound."

-- and for Ockham the flatus  vocis.

1628 PRESTON
"Nothing is said to be empty, but when you look  for a fullness in it."

1673 WALKER
"They bring forth yellow and  empty ears, before the harvest."

1732 POPE
"Which of these is worse,  Want with a full or with an empty purse?"

1732 ARBUTHNOT
"They might  be taken in an empty stomach."

1845 BUDD
"The gall~bladder and ducts  are found empty."

1860 TYNDALL
"I now filled our empty wine-bottle  with snow."

And now we are more emptily prepared to go through Grice's  Vacuous Names.
The header indicates one of my favourite paintings ever, by one  Wright of
Derby.

Cheers,

J. L. Speranza

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