jlsperanza at aol.com
jlsperanza at aol.com
Sat Jan 9 08:58:59 EST 2010
The Oxford Texts, "Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic" has what I do have
as "yields" (after Kleene, Metamathematics), i.e. Frege's assertion sign, to
read "proves", which is an interesting paradoxical one. For null set
proves a theorem, etc.
Another interesting feature of this is that as Grice uses the assertion
operator (cfr. Grandy on quessertions), what we say is only theorematic, which
sounds good with me.
More on the Greek apres Jones:
He is indeed right about 'dialectic'. An online site on rhetoric has the
"In Aristotle, dialectic is very similar, though for him, it represents
something other than a path to Truth with a capital "T." Dialectic for
Aristotle uses cogent logic to reason from widely held or authoritative opinions.
Its conclusions are necessary even if its premises are not."
A good one is:
"enthymeme. (From Greek enthumēma, "thought," "reasoning," "argument.") In
Aristotle, an enthymeme is a syllogism of a particular type, namely, one
whose premises are probable as opposed to obvious, self-evident, or
empirically confirmable. Thus it combines logic with to eikos, proof by
probability. For Aristotle, enthymemes are the basis of rhetorical logic. Because
rhetorical (rather than dialectical), they produce probable, not necessary,
which relates to Grice's implicit reasoning. Why he failed to use enthymema
for that -- knowing how he worshipped Greek escapes me)
The crucial one is:
"epideixis. Plural epideixeis, Greek for "demonstration," "proof"
(epideiknunai, "to show")."
and here we may consult Mainetti, Theories of the Sign in Antiquity. He is
a disciple of Eco, and he knows what he's writing about. Good chapters on
Aristotle on this, as it relates to things like Grice's factive 'mean', and
For the assertion sign it's interesting that one meaning of 'logos' is
indeed 'argument', as per online site referred to above:
logos. (Plur. logoi.) Account, story, speech, an individual speech; an
argument. Also calculation, reason, rational thought, reasoned discourse, true
story (versus myth), etc.
pisteis. The "proofs" section of a speech: where a speaker proves his case.
--- this is an alphabetical site, hence my ordering. This pistis correlates
with the 'valid supplementation' referred to by Grice in his account of
what a prover does as he proves. Oddly, like "meaning", 'proving' is best
used in the past:
Prover P has proved that p, iff P intended, ... and intended that ...
and the ... caused ... etc.
With 'provability' and 'probability' are cognate in English and Latin, that
was not the case for Greek, according to this online site:
Probability (to eikos), argument from. Considered a specialty of sophists
like Gorgias, it seems to have been a fixture in the courtroom speeches of
ancient Athens, due partly, perhaps, to the relative unavailability and
unreliability of physical evidence. Perhaps the most famous / notorious use of
argument from probability was by the sophist-professional
speech-writer-oligarch Antiphon. Accused of plotting the overthrow of democracy in 411 BCE,
he pleaded that a professional speech-writer like him (a logographer) could
hardly be expected to support oligarchy, a regime considered unfriendly to
his line of work. Thucydides, evidently, admired the speech highly. The
jury, however, didn't buy it: Antiphon was put to death.
Does 'reasoning' translate 'syllogism':
syllogism. A logical formula of Aristotle's devising, where two facts
assumed to be true bear a relation to each other such that they imply a third
fact necessarily true. Any given syllogism consists of a major premise, a
minor premise, and a conclusion, for instance:
MAJOR PREMISE. All human beings have souls.
MINOR PREMISE. Socrates is a human being.
CONCLUSION. Socrates has a soul.
If 1 and 2 above are true, then perforce so is 3. Syllogisms figure in
enthymemes, for Aristotle, the basis of most persuasive speech.
My friend Graziella Chichi has dedicated her life to Aristotle's Topics.
She would always try to convince me of the importance of this. Now from this
online site I see what she meant:
topos. Or koinos topos, "common place" (plural koinoi topoi). Your
Aristotle Rhetoric text translates the word as "topic." In Aristotle, it refers to
a widely applicable mode or scheme of argument, a logical "template" from
which many different arguments, enthymemes, can be constructed. Given a
particular thesis one seeks to prove or disprove, one will select a proper
topos to structure the right sort of proof or disproof.
Underlying Aristotle's understanding of the word seems to be its earlier
use by sophists, for whom it perhaps meant commonly available,
"prefabricated" or "ready-to-wear" verbal formulations (arguments, sentiments, topics,
conceits etc.) that could be "plugged-in" to a discourse as needed. In that
sense (one commonly used by critics today), a topos is like a cliché, only
its appeal and effectiveness actually lie in its familiarity: it expresses a
speaker's solidarity with attitudes endorsed by his/her audience.
That understanding of topos is not unrelated to Aristotle's use, as topoi
in the Rhetoric clearly derive their plausibility in large part from the
commonly accepted notions they deploy as arguments.
Put differently, speakers/writers use topoi to "push" this or that
audience-response "button," depending on need. Compare the topoi of funeral
"He was a good husband and a good father
"He rose high but never forgot where he came from"
"He demanded much of his employees, but never more than he did of himself"
Topoi of ancient coutroom oratory:
"My friends are your [the audience's] friends; my enemies, your enemies"
"My opponent tells you he 'loves' you, but his actions speak otherwise"
"Excuse my lack of polish. This is my first time before a court" (I.e.,
"Unlike my opponent, I'm just a regular Athenian who minds his own business")
Topoi of political oratory:
"Others will tell you want you want to hear, will resort to flattery
[etc.]; I will tell you what you need to hear"
"Whose interests will you advance in your voting: those of your enemies
abroad and of their lackeys here in the city, or your own?"
J. L. Speranza
for the Grice Circle
More information about the hist-analytic