[hist-analytic] Not Cricket

jlsperanza at aol.com jlsperanza at aol.com
Sat Jan 16 18:25:40 EST 2010



Since our fair list-owner is planning a book on justice, here a bit of  
linguistic botanising, for the sake of it. And in Greek, too. Direct from the  
online Liddell/Scott:
 
The first thing that Liddell and Scott note is that "δίκαιος" is from  "
δίκη".

Vis a vis Grice's reference to the "popular application" of "dikaios"  in 
WoW, we have:
 
"in Hom. and all writers, 
 
(predicated) -- of persons:
 
observant of custom or rule, 
Od.3.52; esp. 
 
of social rule, 
well-ordered, 
civilized, 
 
“ὑβρισταί τε καὶ ἄγριοι οὐδὲ δ.” 9.175, cf. 8.575; [
“Γαλακτοφάγοι]  δικαιότατοι” Il.13.6; [“Χείρων] δικαιότατος 
Κενταύρων” 11.832, cf. Thgn.314,  794; 
 
δikaios πολίτης 
 
a good citizen, D.3.21, etc.: 
 
metaph. 
of the sea, Sol.12.2 (Sup.); 
 
δικαίη ζόη 
 
a civilized way of living, Hdt.2.177. 
 
Adverb: δικαίως, μνᾶσθαι woo 
 
in due form, decently, Od.14.90; 
 
“ὑπὸ ζυγῷ λόφον δ. εἶχον” 
 
loyally, S.Ant.292. 

Also: 
 
observant of duty to gods and men, 
righteous, 
Od.13.209, etc.; “δ. πρὸς πᾶσαν ὁμιλίην” Hp.Medic. 2; “ἰθὺς καὶ
 δ.”  Hdt.1.96; opp. δυσσεβής, A.Th.598, cf. 610; “δ. καὶ ὅσιος” 
 
Plato, Georgias, 507b; “δικαίων ἀδίκους φρένας παρασπᾷς” 
S.Ant.791 (lyr.); 
 
also of actions, etc., righteous, 
 
ἐπὶ ῥηθέντι δικαίῳ a thing rightly said, Od.18.414, etc. 

Also, "ὁ δίκαιος" euphemism of a sacred snake, GDI 5056 (Crete). 

Also:

equal, even, well-balanced, 
ἅρμα δίκαιον evengoing chariot, X.Cyr.2.2.26: 
 
so metaph., “νωμᾷ δικαίῳ πηδαλίῳ στρατόν” Pi.P.1.86; 
“δικαιόταται  ἀντιρροπαί” Hp.Art.7; δικαιότατα μοχλεύειν ibid.: 
hence, 
 
fair, impartial, 
 
“βάσανος” Antipho 1.8; “συγγραφεύς” Luc.Hist.Conscr.39. 

Also: 
 
legally exact, precise, 
 
τῷ δικαιοτάτῳ τῶν λόγων 
 
to speak quite exactly, Hdt.7.108, cf. Th.3.44; 
 
of Numbers, 
 
“αἱ ἑκατὸν ὀργυιαὶ δίκαιαι” Hdt.2.149. 
 
Adverb “dikαίως, πάντα δ. ὑμῖν τετήρηται” D.21.3; δikaios 
ἐξετάζειν ib.154.  

Also: 
 
lawful, just, esp. 
 
τὸ δikaion, right, opp. 
 
τὸ ἄδικον, Hdt.1.96, A.Pr.189 (lyr.), etc.; 
 
“τὸ δ. τὸ νόμιμον καὶ τὸ ἴσον” Arist.EN1129a34; δ. 
διορθωτικόν,  διανεμητικόν, ib.1131b25, 27; τὸ πολιτικὸν δ. ib.1134b18; 
“ἔστι ἐπιεικὲς τὸ παρὰ  τὸν γεγραμμένον νόμον δ.” 
Id.Rh.1374a27, cf. EN1137b12; “καὶ δίκαια κἄδικα” Ar.  Nu.99; “τὰ ἴσα 
καὶ τὰ δ.” D.21.67; τοὐμὸν δ. my own right, E.IA810; 
 
ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τοῦτο τὸ δ. 
bring the case to this issue, Antipho6.24; 
 
οὐδὲν τῶν δ. ποιεῖν τινί 
 
not to do what is just and right by a man, X.HG5.3.10; 
 
τὰ δ. ἔχειν, λαμβάνειν, 
receive one's due, 
Id.An.7.7.14, 17; 
 
τὰ δ. πράττεσθαι πόλιν 
give a city its deserts, A.Ag.812; ἐκ τοῦ δικαίου, = δικαίως, 
Ar.Av.1435,  cf. Th.2.89; so ἀπὸ τοῦ δικαίου, τῶν δικαίων, 
Inscr.Prien.50.8 (ii B. C.), 123.8  (i B. C.); “μετὰ τοῦ δ.” Lys.2.12, D.21.177; 
 
τὸ δίκαιον 
lawful claim, 
 
ἃ ἔχομεν δίκαια πρός . . Th.3.54, cf. D. 21.179, Plu.Luc.3, etc.; 
τὰ πρὸς  ἀλλήλους δ. 
 
mutual obligations or contracts, Plb.3.21.10; 
 
ἐπὶ συγκειμένοις τισὶ δικαίοις 
 
on certain agreed terms, D.H.3.51. 
 
Adv. “-αίως” rightly, justly, Hdt.6.137; “μεῖζον ἢ δ.” A.Ag.376 
(lyr.);  “καὶ δ. καὶ ἀδίκως” And.1.135. 
I
Also: 
of persons and things, 
 
meet and right, fitting, 
 
“δ. τοῦδε τοῦ φόνου ῥαφεύς” A.Ag.1604; “κόσμος οὐ φέρειν δ
.” Id.Eu.55; 
 
ἵππον δ. ποιεῖσθαί τινι 
make a horse fit for another's use, 
 
X.Mem.4.4.5, cf. Cyn.7.4 
(ἵππος δ. τὴν σιαγόνα having a good mouth, Poll.1.196). 

Also: 
 
normal, 
“σχήματα” Hp.Art.69; “φύσις” Id.Fract.1 (Sup.). 

Also: 
 
real, genuine, 
 
“γόνος” S.Fr.[1119]; “ποιῶν τὰ ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ δ.” 
Supp.Epigr.2.184.7 (Tanagra,  ii B. C.). 
 
Adverb, εἴπερ δικαίως ἐστ᾽ ἐμός 
really and truly mine, S.Aj.547, cf.Pl.Cra.418e. 

ὁ δ. λόγος 
 
the plea of equity, Th.1.76. 
 
Adverb 
 
“dikαίως” 
with reason, Id.6.34, cf. S.OT675: 
 
Comp. “dikότερον” Ar.V.1149, etc.; also “dikoοτέρως” Isoc. 15.170: 
Sup.  “dikότατα” Ar.Av.1222; Aeol. “δικαίτατα” IG12(2).526c17 
(Eresus). 

III. 
 
ψυχὴ ἐς τὸ δ. ἔβη 
 
'the land of the leal', IG7.2543.3 (Thebes). 

In Prose, δίκαιός εἰμι, c. inf.,
 
 δίκαιοί ἐστε ἰέναι 
 
you are bound to come, Hdt.9.60, 
 
cf. 8.137; “δ. εἰμεν ἔχειν” Id.9.27; 
 
δ. εἰμι κολάζειν 
 
I have a right to punish, Ar.Nu.1434, 
 
cf. S.Ant.400; “δ. ἐστι περιπεσεῖν κακοῖς” Antipho 3.3.7; 
 
δ. εἰσι ἀπιστότατοι εἶναι 
they have most reason to distrust, 
Th.4.17; “δ. βλάπτεσθαι” Lys.20.12; 
 
“δ. ἐστιν ἀπολωλέναι” 
dignus est qui pereat, 
 
D.6.37; ὁ σπουδαῖος ἄρχειν δ. 
 
has a right to . . , 
Aristotle, Politics, 1287b12; 
 
with a non-personal subject, 
 
“ἔλεος δ. ἀντιδίδοσθαι” Th.3.40: less freq. in Comp. and Sup., 
“δικαιότεροι  χαρίσασθαι” Lys.20.34; 
 
“δικαιότατος εἶ ἀπαγγέλλειν” 
Plato Symposium 172b; 
 
but δίκαιόν ἐστι is also found, Hdt.1.39, A.Pr.611, etc.: pl., 
“δίκαια γὰρ  τόνδ᾽ εὐτυχεῖν” S.Aj.1126, cf. Tr.495, 1116; δικαίως ἄν
, c. opt., Pl. Phdr.276a.  [δικαίων with penult. short in Orph.Fr.247.2; 
cf. οὐ δίκαον: οὐ δίκαιον,  Hsch.]
 
So I would think what Grice is having in mind, apres Hart, is an  
externalist, Thrasymachean, Kelsenian positivistic, "usage", "He is just" -- he  
abides by Hamurabi's Code, whatever that is, say.
 
Versus the properly internal, implicatural, perhaps Rawlsian and Baynesian, 
 "just" -- with Baynes claiming that
 
         "He is unjust, but he is  still commandable"
 
involves, not, as Nowell-Smith, or Grice, or Hare (?) would say, a  
contextual or pragmatic 'oddity', but a breach of a meaning-postulate alla Aune,  
making it "a nonsensical thing to say". Of course I'm simplifying issues!
 
Cheers,
 
JLS
 




More information about the hist-analytic mailing list