[hist-analytic] Not Cricket

jlsperanza at aol.com jlsperanza at aol.com
Sat Jan 16 18:25:40 EST 2010

Since our fair list-owner is planning a book on justice, here a bit of  
linguistic botanising, for the sake of it. And in Greek, too. Direct from the  
online Liddell/Scott:
The first thing that Liddell and Scott note is that "δίκαιος" is from  "

Vis a vis Grice's reference to the "popular application" of "dikaios"  in 
WoW, we have:
"in Hom. and all writers, 
(predicated) -- of persons:
observant of custom or rule, 
Od.3.52; esp. 
of social rule, 
“ὑβρισταί τε καὶ ἄγριοι οὐδὲ δ.” 9.175, cf. 8.575; [
“Γαλακτοφάγοι]  δικαιότατοι” Il.13.6; [“Χείρων] δικαιότατος 
Κενταύρων” 11.832, cf. Thgn.314,  794; 
δikaios πολίτης 
a good citizen, D.3.21, etc.: 
of the sea, Sol.12.2 (Sup.); 
δικαίη ζόη 
a civilized way of living, Hdt.2.177. 
Adverb: δικαίως, μνᾶσθαι woo 
in due form, decently, Od.14.90; 
“ὑπὸ ζυγῷ λόφον δ. εἶχον” 
loyally, S.Ant.292. 

observant of duty to gods and men, 
Od.13.209, etc.; “δ. πρὸς πᾶσαν ὁμιλίην” Hp.Medic. 2; “ἰθὺς καὶ
 δ.”  Hdt.1.96; opp. δυσσεβής, A.Th.598, cf. 610; “δ. καὶ ὅσιος” 
Plato, Georgias, 507b; “δικαίων ἀδίκους φρένας παρασπᾷς” 
S.Ant.791 (lyr.); 
also of actions, etc., righteous, 
ἐπὶ ῥηθέντι δικαίῳ a thing rightly said, Od.18.414, etc. 

Also, "ὁ δίκαιος" euphemism of a sacred snake, GDI 5056 (Crete). 


equal, even, well-balanced, 
ἅρμα δίκαιον evengoing chariot, X.Cyr.2.2.26: 
so metaph., “νωμᾷ δικαίῳ πηδαλίῳ στρατόν” Pi.P.1.86; 
“δικαιόταται  ἀντιρροπαί” Hp.Art.7; δικαιότατα μοχλεύειν ibid.: 
fair, impartial, 
“βάσανος” Antipho 1.8; “συγγραφεύς” Luc.Hist.Conscr.39. 

legally exact, precise, 
τῷ δικαιοτάτῳ τῶν λόγων 
to speak quite exactly, Hdt.7.108, cf. Th.3.44; 
of Numbers, 
“αἱ ἑκατὸν ὀργυιαὶ δίκαιαι” Hdt.2.149. 
Adverb “dikαίως, πάντα δ. ὑμῖν τετήρηται” D.21.3; δikaios 
ἐξετάζειν ib.154.  

lawful, just, esp. 
τὸ δikaion, right, opp. 
τὸ ἄδικον, Hdt.1.96, A.Pr.189 (lyr.), etc.; 
“τὸ δ. τὸ νόμιμον καὶ τὸ ἴσον” Arist.EN1129a34; δ. 
διορθωτικόν,  διανεμητικόν, ib.1131b25, 27; τὸ πολιτικὸν δ. ib.1134b18; 
“ἔστι ἐπιεικὲς τὸ παρὰ  τὸν γεγραμμένον νόμον δ.” 
Id.Rh.1374a27, cf. EN1137b12; “καὶ δίκαια κἄδικα” Ar.  Nu.99; “τὰ ἴσα 
καὶ τὰ δ.” D.21.67; τοὐμὸν δ. my own right, E.IA810; 
ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τοῦτο τὸ δ. 
bring the case to this issue, Antipho6.24; 
οὐδὲν τῶν δ. ποιεῖν τινί 
not to do what is just and right by a man, X.HG5.3.10; 
τὰ δ. ἔχειν, λαμβάνειν, 
receive one's due, 
Id.An.7.7.14, 17; 
τὰ δ. πράττεσθαι πόλιν 
give a city its deserts, A.Ag.812; ἐκ τοῦ δικαίου, = δικαίως, 
Ar.Av.1435,  cf. Th.2.89; so ἀπὸ τοῦ δικαίου, τῶν δικαίων, 
Inscr.Prien.50.8 (ii B. C.), 123.8  (i B. C.); “μετὰ τοῦ δ.” Lys.2.12, D.21.177; 
τὸ δίκαιον 
lawful claim, 
ἃ ἔχομεν δίκαια πρός . . Th.3.54, cf. D. 21.179, Plu.Luc.3, etc.; 
τὰ πρὸς  ἀλλήλους δ. 
mutual obligations or contracts, Plb.3.21.10; 
ἐπὶ συγκειμένοις τισὶ δικαίοις 
on certain agreed terms, D.H.3.51. 
Adv. “-αίως” rightly, justly, Hdt.6.137; “μεῖζον ἢ δ.” A.Ag.376 
(lyr.);  “καὶ δ. καὶ ἀδίκως” And.1.135. 
of persons and things, 
meet and right, fitting, 
“δ. τοῦδε τοῦ φόνου ῥαφεύς” A.Ag.1604; “κόσμος οὐ φέρειν δ
.” Id.Eu.55; 
ἵππον δ. ποιεῖσθαί τινι 
make a horse fit for another's use, 
X.Mem.4.4.5, cf. Cyn.7.4 
(ἵππος δ. τὴν σιαγόνα having a good mouth, Poll.1.196). 

“σχήματα” Hp.Art.69; “φύσις” Id.Fract.1 (Sup.). 

real, genuine, 
“γόνος” S.Fr.[1119]; “ποιῶν τὰ ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ δ.” 
Supp.Epigr.2.184.7 (Tanagra,  ii B. C.). 
Adverb, εἴπερ δικαίως ἐστ᾽ ἐμός 
really and truly mine, S.Aj.547, cf.Pl.Cra.418e. 

ὁ δ. λόγος 
the plea of equity, Th.1.76. 
with reason, Id.6.34, cf. S.OT675: 
Comp. “dikότερον” Ar.V.1149, etc.; also “dikoοτέρως” Isoc. 15.170: 
Sup.  “dikότατα” Ar.Av.1222; Aeol. “δικαίτατα” IG12(2).526c17 

ψυχὴ ἐς τὸ δ. ἔβη 
'the land of the leal', IG7.2543.3 (Thebes). 

In Prose, δίκαιός εἰμι, c. inf.,
 δίκαιοί ἐστε ἰέναι 
you are bound to come, Hdt.9.60, 
cf. 8.137; “δ. εἰμεν ἔχειν” Id.9.27; 
δ. εἰμι κολάζειν 
I have a right to punish, Ar.Nu.1434, 
cf. S.Ant.400; “δ. ἐστι περιπεσεῖν κακοῖς” Antipho 3.3.7; 
δ. εἰσι ἀπιστότατοι εἶναι 
they have most reason to distrust, 
Th.4.17; “δ. βλάπτεσθαι” Lys.20.12; 
“δ. ἐστιν ἀπολωλέναι” 
dignus est qui pereat, 
D.6.37; ὁ σπουδαῖος ἄρχειν δ. 
has a right to . . , 
Aristotle, Politics, 1287b12; 
with a non-personal subject, 
“ἔλεος δ. ἀντιδίδοσθαι” Th.3.40: less freq. in Comp. and Sup., 
“δικαιότεροι  χαρίσασθαι” Lys.20.34; 
“δικαιότατος εἶ ἀπαγγέλλειν” 
Plato Symposium 172b; 
but δίκαιόν ἐστι is also found, Hdt.1.39, A.Pr.611, etc.: pl., 
“δίκαια γὰρ  τόνδ᾽ εὐτυχεῖν” S.Aj.1126, cf. Tr.495, 1116; δικαίως ἄν
, c. opt., Pl. Phdr.276a.  [δικαίων with penult. short in Orph.Fr.247.2; 
cf. οὐ δίκαον: οὐ δίκαιον,  Hsch.]
So I would think what Grice is having in mind, apres Hart, is an  
externalist, Thrasymachean, Kelsenian positivistic, "usage", "He is just" -- he  
abides by Hamurabi's Code, whatever that is, say.
Versus the properly internal, implicatural, perhaps Rawlsian and Baynesian, 
 "just" -- with Baynes claiming that
         "He is unjust, but he is  still commandable"
involves, not, as Nowell-Smith, or Grice, or Hare (?) would say, a  
contextual or pragmatic 'oddity', but a breach of a meaning-postulate alla Aune,  
making it "a nonsensical thing to say". Of course I'm simplifying issues!

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