[hist-analytic] ***SPAM*** Re: Analytic Philosophy of History
baynesrb at yahoo.com
Fri Sep 17 12:42:07 EDT 2010
A quick reply to Speranza. First, a softening of my reply to Brandon. Popper's view of Aristotle as unoriginal, kinda stupid, etc. is simply wrong by any reasonable standard of evidence. To cite Plato's Sophist as anticipatory of Aristotle's syllogism is ridiculous, for example. Kneale an Kneale The Development of Logic do the best job yet, as far as I can tell giving the relevant details. There is a connection - who could deny it. But Aristotle's use of variables was the first such use outside of pure mathematics and his rules for the three forms are nowhere to be found in Plato. Now on to thermidor.
What I'm up to here is something a bit different than the kind of "analysis" which, I think, Speranza has in mind. My objective in all this is to drive a wedge between Popper's methodological indiviudalism and his theory of explanation. That is: I want to advocate a singularist theory of causation that dispenses with methodological individualism. To do this I will locate singular causation not in the individual agent, since I don't think persons can be "individuated" in the usual sense, but in the idea of the present for each body OF a person. In other words, the "individualism" reduces (in some sense) to singular causation; agents become processes integral to the causal process and, as such, are not persons. I reject the primacy of naturalized epistemology as a dead end. I can't take up some of these issues here and now. I just wanted to give a sketch of the general picture I have in mind: a historicism that does not rely on rejecting methodological
individualism, but relocates it in processes involving singular causation, etc.
--- On Tue, 9/14/10, Jlsperanza at aol.com <Jlsperanza at aol.com> wrote:
> From: Jlsperanza at aol.com <Jlsperanza at aol.com>
> Subject: Analytic Philosophy of History
> To: hist-analytic at simplelists.co.uk
> Date: Tuesday, September 14, 2010, 4:37 PM
> In a message dated 9/14/2010 8:37:, Baynesr at comcast.net
> writes in reply to
> "Indeed, it is the asymmetries of science and history that
> provoked the
> Hempel/Dray dispute which as far as I can tell had an
> outcome that favored the
> historians over the physicists. But that is a long story.
> By the way, Dray
> in on Hist-Analytic."
> Indeed, and thanks for reminding us.
> I once was attracted to Danto's approach in the philosophy
> of history.
> Analytic to the backbone!
> But I agree with Bayne that the dispute with Hempel 'had an
> outcome that
> favored the historians'. I'm never sure why!
> I think the reason may be found in Dilthey -- and von
> Wright -- and, why
> not, Grice!
> For Dilthey, there are sciences of nature
> (Naturwissenschaften) and
> sciences of the 'spirit' (Geistwissenschaften). In
> "Explanation and
> Understanding", von Wright attempts a sort of 'analytic'
> reading of Dilthey. And the
> same is obvious in some of the writings by Grice on
> 'intentional' action.
> We have an Anscombe expert here (Bayne, author of the first
> and best
> detailed, exegetical work on Anscombe) -- and so Bayne is
> onto something when he
> speaks of retrodiction:
> "I don't think philosophers of history are into predicting
> the future. If
> anything, it is quite the opposite: retrodiction."
> How does this work?
> ---- It's a sort of intentional explanation, ex post facto.
> To use Bayne's
> favourite example:
> -- I post below for easy reference the wiki on that. I
> would suggest that
> an analytic approach to Thermidor is largely available. In
> the proceeding,
> it's the reference to an intention (which is
> forward-looking, by conception)
> but it's a retrodictive attribution on the part of
> the historian that
> counts -- the backward encapuslation of a forward
> 'end' -- or something.
> "The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French
> Revolution against
> the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a
> vote of the
> Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre,
> Saint-Just and several other
> leading members of the Terror. This ended the most
> radical phase of the
> French Revolution.
> The name Thermidorian refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27
> July 1794), the
> date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when
> Robespierre and other
> radical revolutionaries came under concerted attack in the
> Convention. Thermidorian Reaction also refers to the
> remaining period until the
> National Convention was superseded by the Directory;
> this is also sometimes
> called the era of the Thermidorian Convention.
> Prominent figures of
> Thermidor include Paul Barras, Jean Lambert Tallien
> and Joseph Fouché.
> "Thermidor represents the final throes of the Reign of
> Terror. With
> Robespierre the sole remaining strong man of the Revolution
> (following the
> assassination of Jean-Paul Marat, and the executions of
> Georges Danton and
> Jacques Hébert), his apparently total grasp on power was,
> in fact, increasingly
> illusory, especially insofar as he seemed to have support
> from factions to
> his right. His only real political
> power at this time lay in
> the Jacobin Club, which had extended itself beyond
> the borders of Paris
> and into the country as a network of "Popular
> Societies". His tight personal
> control of the military and his distrust of military
> might and of banks,
> along with his opposition to corrupt individuals in
> government, made
> Robespierre the subject of a number of conspiracies.
> The conspiracies came together
> on 9 Thermidor (27 July) when members of the national
> bodies of the
> revolutionary government arrested Robespierre as well
> as the leaders of the Paris
> city government."
> "Not all of the conspiratorial groupings were ideological
> in motivation;
> many who conspired against Robespierre did so for strong
> practical and
> personal reasons, most notably self-preservation. The
> surviving Dantonists, such
> as Merlin de Thionville for example, wanted revenge
> for the death of Danton
> and, more importantly, to protect their own heads."
> "The Left were opposed ta Robespierre on the grounds that
> he rejected
> atheism and was not sufficiently radical."
> "The prime mover, however, for the events of 9 Thermidor
> (27 July) was a
> Montagnard conspiracy, led by Jean Lambert Tallien and
> Bourdon de l'Oise,
> which was gradually coalescing, and was to come to
> pass at the time when the
> Montagnards had finally swayed the deputies of the Right
> over to their side.
> (Robespierre and Saint-Just were, themselves,
> Montagnards.) Some
> authors argue that the then leftist Joseph Fouché
> played a large role in the
> conspiracy. Fouché was likely to be convicted and
> executed for treason and
> atheism, since Robespierre himself was about to
> denounce him in a speech to the
> Convention, which would have been delivered the day
> after the coup d'état
> (28 July). Dwelling in the shadows, he made great
> efforts to convince the
> main surviving leftists and moderates that they were
> meant to be the next
> victims of Robespierre's dictatorialship, thus
> uniting them against
> Robespierre, and by those means saving his own
> "On 9 Thermidor (27 July), in the Hall of Liberty in Paris,
> Saint-Just was
> in the midst of reading a report to the Committee of Public
> Safety when he
> was interrupted by Tallien, who impugned Saint-Just
> and then went on to
> denounce the tyranny of Robespierre. The attack was
> taken up by
> Billaud-Varenne, and Saint-Just's typical eloquence
> fled him, leaving him subject to a
> withering verbal assault until Robespierre leapt to
> the defense of Saint-Just
> and himself. Cries went up of 'Down with the tyrant!
> Arrest him!'
> Robespierre then made his appeal to the deputies of
> the Right, "Deputies of the
> Right, men of honour, men of virtue, give me the
> floor, since the assassins
> will not." However, the Right was unmoved, and an
> order was made to arrest
> Robespierre and his followers."
> "Troops from the Commune arrived to liberate the prisoners.
> The Commune
> troops, under General Coffinhal, then marched against the
> Convention itself.
> The Convention responded by ordering troops of its
> own under Paul François
> Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras to be called out.
> When the Commune's troops
> heard the news of this, order began to break down,
> and Hanriot ordered his
> remaining troops to withdraw to the Hôtel de Ville.
> Robespierre and his
> supporters also gathered at the Hôtel de Ville. The
> Convention declared them
> to be outlaws, meaning that upon verification the
> fugitives could be
> executed within 24 hours without a trial. As the
> night went on the Commune forces
> at the Hôtel de Ville deserted until none of them
> remained. The Convention
> troops under Barras approached the Hôtel around 2:00
> am on 28 July. As they
> came, Robespierre's brother Augustin leapt out of a
> window in an escape
> attempt, broke his legs, and was arrested. Le Bas
> committed suicide. Couthon,
> who was paralysed from the waist down, was found
> lying at the bottom of a
> staircase. Robespierre was shot in the face, and his
> jaw was shattered.
> There are two accounts of how he received the wound.
> One states that,
> anticipating his own downfall and wanting to have the
> death of a hero, Robespierre
> attempted to kill himself and shattered his own jaw
> with a shot. The
> contrary view is that he was shot by one of the
> Convention's troops. At the
> time, a gendarme named Charles-André Merda claimed
> to have pulled the
> "Saint-Just made no attempt at suicide or concealment.
> Hanriot tried to
> hide in the Hôtel de Ville's yard, by some sources[who?]
> after being thrown
> out a window into a stack of latrine and hay, but the
> Convention troops
> quickly discovered him and assaulted him badly,
> allegedly gouging one of his
> eyes out so that it hung from its socket."
> "Robespierre was declared an outlaw, and condemned without
> process. The following day, 10 Thermidor (28 July 1794), he
> was executed with 21
> of his closest associates, including:
> Adrien-Nicolas Gobeau, ex-substitute of the public
> Antoine Gency;
> Antoine Simon, gaoler of the Dauphin;
> Augustin Robespierre;
> Charles-Jacques Bougon;
> Christophe Cochefer;
> Claude-François de Payan;
> Denis-Étienne Laurent, municipal officer;
> Étienne-Nicolas Guérin;
> François Hanriot, ex-commander of the garde
> Jean-Baptiste de Lavalette, ex-général de brigade;
> Jean-Barnabé Dhazard;
> Jean-Baptiste Fleuriot-Lescot, mayor of Paris;
> Jean-Claude Bernard;
> Jean-Etienne Forestier;
> Jacques-Louis Frédéric Wouarmé.
> Jean-Marie Quenet;
> Georges Couthon;
> Louis-Antoine-Léon Saint-Just;
> Nicolas-Joseph Vivier, judge of the Revolutionary
> René-François Dumas, ex-president of the
> Revolutionary Tribunal;
> "Certainly, the events of 9 Thermidor were to prove a
> watershed in the
> revolutionary process. The Thermidorian regime that
> followed was, at the very
> least, less rigid, ending the Reign of Terror and
> allowing for more
> individual liberty, especially in areas of religion. At
> the same time, its
> economic policies paved the way for rampant
> inflation. Ultimately, power devolved
> to the hands of the Directory, an executive of five
> men who assumed power
> in France in year III of the French Revolution."
> "The Thermidorian regime excluded the remaining Montagnards
> from power,
> even those who had joined in conspiring against Robespierre
> and Saint-Just.
> The White Terror resulted in numerous imprisonments
> and several hundred
> executions, almost exclusively of people on the
> political left.
> These numbers, while significant, were considerably
> smaller than those
> associated with the previous Reign of Terror, which
> killed thousands, however,
> even in smaller numbers, said executions were made
> for revenge against the
> Jacobins and mostly for political differences, also
> many of the victims
> were executed without a trial."
> "The Thermidorian Convention continued until 26 October
> 1795 (4 Brumaire
> Year IV), when the National Convention was succeeded by the
> "For historians of revolutionary movements, the term
> Thermidor has come to
> mean the phase in some revolutions when power slips from
> the hands of the
> original revolutionary leadership and a radical regime is
> replaced by a more
> conservative regime, sometimes to the point where the
> political pendulum
> may swing back towards something resembling a
> pre-revolutionary state. Leon
> Trotsky, in his book The Revolution Betrayed, refers
> to the rise of Stalin
> and the accompanying post-revolutionary bureaucracy
> as the Soviet
> 1.^ e.g. Stefan Zweig in Joseph Fouché. Bildnis eines
> politischen Menschen.
> 2.^ Merriman, John(2004). "Thermidor"(2nd ed.). A history
> of modern
> Europe: from the Renaissance to the present,p 507. W.W.
> Norton & Company Ltd.
> ISBN 0-393-92495-5
> 3.^ "The French Revolution A History". 2007.
> Becker Marianne, Maximilien, Histoire de Robespierre, tome
> 1 (1989);
> Becker Marianne, Maximilien, Histoire de Robespierre, tome
> 2 (1994);
> Becker Marianne, Maximilien, Histoire de Robespierre, tome
> 3 (1999);
> Bouloiseau Marc, Robespierre, Que sais-je?, Presses
> Universitaires de
> France (1956).
> Bouloiseau Marc, La republique Jacobin (10 août 1792 -
> 9 thermidor an II).
> Paris. (1972)
> Brunel Françoise, Thermidor, la chute de
> Robespierre, Ed. Complexe (1989).
> Domecq Jean Philippe, Robespierre, derniers temps,
> Seuil (1984).
> Frère Jean-Claude, Robespierre, la victoire ou la
> mort, Flammarion (1983).
> Gallo Max, L'homme Robespierre, histoire d'une
> solitude, Librairie Acad.
> Perrin (1984).
> Guillemin Henri, Robespierre politique et mystique,
> Seuil (1987).
> Hamel Ernest, Histoire de Robespierre, A. Cinqualbre,
> Paris (1885).
> Hamel Ernest, Thermidor, Jouvet & Cie Editeur
> Jacob Louis, Robespierre vu par ses contemporains,
> Pierre-Toussaint Durand de Maillane, L'Histoire de la
> Nationale. Paris: Baudouin (1825)
> Madelin Louis, Fouché, de la Révolution à
> l'Empire, tome 1, Nouveau Monde
> Editions, Reedition (2002)
> Massin Jean, Robespierre, Club français du livre
> Mathiez Albert, Autour de Robespierre, Payot.
> Mathiez Albert, Robespierre terroriste, (1921).
> Mathiez Albert, Etudes sur Robespierre, S.E.R.(1927).
> Robespierre Maximilien, Discours et rapports à la
> Convention, Ed. 10/18
> Robespierre Maximilien, Textes choisis, Ed. Sociales
> Sollet Bertrand, Robespierre, Messidor (1988).
> Walter Gèrard, Robespierre, Gallimard (1961).
> Hibbert, Christopher "Paris in the Terror" New York:
> Dorset Press (1981).
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