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Aristotle - index for METAPHYSICA Book 11 Part 6

Contradictory statements cannot be truly made

  
Paragraph 1 The saying of Protagoras is like the views we have mentioned;
Paragraph 2 That nothing comes to be out of that which is not, but everything out of that which is, is a dogma common to nearly all the natural philosophers.
Paragraph 3 But to attend equally to the opinions and the fancies of disputing parties is childish;
Paragraph 4 In general, it is absurd to make the fact that the things of this earth are observed to change and never to remain in the same state, the basis of our judgement about the truth.
Paragraph 5 Further, if there is movement, there is also something moved, and everything is moved out of something and into something;
Paragraph 6 And if the things of this earth continuously flow and move in respect of quantity - if one were to suppose this, although it is not true - why should they not endure in respect of quality?
Paragraph 7 Further, when the doctor orders people to take some particular food, why do they take it?
Paragraph 8 Again, if we are always changing and never remain the same, what wonder is it if to us, as to the sick, things never appear the same?
Paragraph 9 As for those to whom the difficulties mentioned are suggested by reasoning, it is not easy to solve the difficulties to their satisfaction, unless they will posit something and no longer demand a reason for it;
Paragraph 10 It is manifest, therefore, from these arguments that contradictory statements cannot be truly made about the same subject at one time, nor can contrary statements, because every contrariety depends on privation.
Paragraph 11 Similarly, no intermediate between contraries can be predicated of one and the same subject, of which one of the contraries is predicated.
Paragraph 12 We could not be right, then, in accepting the views either of Heraclitus or of Anaxagoras.


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