Aristotle - index for METAPHYSICA Book 12 Part 4

Causes of substances

Paragraph 1 The causes and the principles of different things are in a sense different, but in a sense, if one speaks universally and analogically, they are the same for all.
Paragraph 2 Or, as we are wont to put it, in a sense they have and in a sense they have not;
Paragraph 3 Since not only the elements present in a thing are causes, but also something external, i.e. the moving cause, clearly while 'principle' and 'element' are different both are causes, and 'principle' is divided into these two kinds;

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