Aristotle - index for METAPHYSICA Book 12 Part 5

Similarities and differences in causes

Paragraph 1 Some things can exist apart and some cannot, and it is the former that are substances.
Paragraph 2 And in yet another way, analogically identical things are principles, i.e. actuality and potency;
Paragraph 3 Further, one must observe that some causes can be expressed in universal terms, and some cannot.
Paragraph 4 Further, if the causes of substances are the causes of all things, yet different things have different causes and elements, as was said;
Paragraph 5 They are (1) the same or analogous in this sense, that matter, form, privation, and the moving cause are common to all things;
Paragraph 6 and (2) the causes of substances may be treated as causes of all things in this sense, that when substances are removed all things are removed;
Paragraph 7 further, (3) that which is first in respect of complete reality is the cause of all things.

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