UP

Aristotle METAPHYSICA Book 5 Part 8

Substance

1. We call 'substance': -

2. (1) the simple bodies, i.e. earth and fire and water and everything of the sort, and in general bodies and the things composed of them, both animals and divine beings, and the parts of these. All these are called substance because they are not predicated of a subject but everything else is predicated of them.

3. (2) That which, being present in such things as are not predicated of a subject, is the cause of their being, as the soul is of the being of an animal.

4. (3) The parts which are present in such things, limiting them and marking them as individuals, and by whose destruction the whole is destroyed, as the body is by the destruction of the plane, as some say, and the plane by the destruction of the line; and in general number is thought by some to be of this nature; for if it is destroyed, they say, nothing exists, and it limits all things.

5. (4) The essence, the formula of which is a definition, is also called the substance of each thing.

6. It follows, then, that 'substance' has two senses, (A) ultimate substratum, which is no longer predicated of anything else, and (B) that which, being a 'this', is also separable and of this nature is the shape or form of each thing.


UPHOME HTML edition © RBJ created 1996/11/25 modified 2009/04/26