Aristotle - The Organon - index for CATEGORIAE Book 1 Part 7


Paragraph 1 Those things are called relative, which, being either said to be of something else or related to something else, are explained by reference to that other thing.
Paragraph 2 It is possible for relatives to have contraries.
Paragraph 3 It also appears that relatives can admit of variation of degree.
Paragraph 4 So it is with every other relative term;
Paragraph 5 Sometimes, however, reciprocity of correlation does not appear to exist.
Paragraph 6 Occasionally, perhaps, it is necessary to coin words, if no word exists by which a correlation can adequately be explained.
Paragraph 7 Thus we may perhaps most easily comprehend that to which a thing is related, when a name does not exist, if, from that which has a name, we derive a new name, and apply it to that with which the first is reciprocally connected, as in the aforesaid instances, when we derived the word 'winged' from 'wing' and from 'rudder'.
Paragraph 8 All relatives, then, if properly defined, have a correlative.
Paragraph 9 For suppose the correlative of 'the slave' should be said to be 'the man', or the correlative of 'the wing' 'the bird';
Paragraph 10 Thus it is essential that the correlated terms should be exactly designated;
Paragraph 11 Correlatives are thought to come into existence simultaneously.
Paragraph 12 Again, while the object of knowledge, if it ceases to exist, cancels at the same time the knowledge which was its correlative, the converse of this is not true.
Paragraph 13 This is likewise the case with regard to perception:
Paragraph 14 But the annihilation of perception does not involve that of the perceptible.
Paragraph 15 Again, perception is generated at the same time as the perceiving subject, for it comes into existence at the same time as the animal.
Paragraph 16 It may be questioned whether it is true that no substance is relative, as seems to be the case, or whether exception is to be made in the case of certain secondary substances.
Paragraph 17 The former definition does indeed apply to all relatives, but the fact that a thing is explained with reference to something else does not make it essentially relative.
Paragraph 18 From this it is plain that, if a man definitely apprehends a relative thing, he will also definitely apprehend that to which it is relative.
Paragraph 19 Now the head, the hand, and such things are substances, and it is possible to know their essential character definitely, but it does not necessarily follow that we should know that to which they are related.

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