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Aristotle - The Organon - index for ANALYTICA PRIORIA Book 2 Part 16

Begging the question

  
Paragraph 1 To beg and assume the original question is a species of failure to demonstrate the problem proposed;
Paragraph 2 If then it is uncertain whether A belongs to C, and also whether A belongs to B, and if one should assume that A does belong to B, it is not yet clear whether he begs the original question, but it is evident that he is not demonstrating:
Paragraph 3 Similarly if he should assume that B belongs to C, this being as uncertain as the question whether A belongs to C, the question is not yet begged, but no demonstration is made.
Paragraph 4 If then begging the question is proving what is not self-evident by means of itself, in other words failing to prove when the failure is due to the thesis to be proved and the premiss through which it is proved being equally uncertain, either because predicates which are identical belong to the same subject, or because the same predicate belongs to subjects which are identical, the question may be begged in the middle and third figures in both ways, though, if the syllogism is affirmative, only in the third and first figures.


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