Aristotle - The Organon - index for ANALYTICA POSTERIORA Book 1 Part 16

Ignorance is error produced by inference

Paragraph 1 Ignorance - defined not as the negation of knowledge but as a positive state of mind - is error produced by inference.
Paragraph 2 (1) Let us first consider propositions asserting a predicate's immediate connexion with or disconnexion from a subject.
Paragraph 3 Error of attribution, then, occurs through these causes and in this form only - for we found that no syllogism of universal attribution was possible in any figure but the first.
Paragraph 4 (c) It may occur when both premisses are false;
Paragraph 5 (d) It is also possible when one is false.
Paragraph 6 In the second figure the premisses cannot both be wholly false;
Paragraph 7 It is thus clear that in the case of atomic propositions erroneous inference will be possible not only when both premisses are false but also when only one is false.

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