UP

Aristotle - The Organon - index for TOPICA Book 1 Part 15

The number of senses a term bears

  
Paragraph 1 On the formation, then, of propositions, the above remarks are enough.
Paragraph 2 Whether a term bears a number of specific meanings or one only, may be considered by the following means.
Paragraph 3 In some cases there is no discrepancy of any sort in the names used, but a difference of kind between the meanings is at once obvious:
Paragraph 4 Moreover, see if one sense of a term has a contrary, while another has absolutely none;
Paragraph 5 Again, in the case of the contradictory opposite, look and see if it bears more than one meaning.
Paragraph 6 Moreover, examine the case of terms that denote the privation or presence of a certain state:
Paragraph 7 Moreover, examine the inflected forms.
Paragraph 8 Look also at the classes of the predicates signified by the term, and see if they are the same in all cases.
Paragraph 9 Look also at the genera of the objects denoted by the same term, and see if they are different without being subaltern, as (e.g.) 'donkey', which denotes both the animal and the engine.
Paragraph 10 Look also and see not only if the genera of the term before you are different without being subaltern, but also in the case of its contrary:
Paragraph 11 It is useful also to look at the definition that arises from the use of the term in combination, e.g. of a 'clear (lit.
Paragraph 12 Often in the actual definitions as well ambiguity creeps in unawares, and for this reason the definitions also should be examined.
Paragraph 13 Moreover, see if the terms cannot be compared as 'more or less' or as 'in like manner', as is the case (e.g.) with a 'clear' (lit.
Paragraph 14 Now since of genera that are different without being subaltern the differentiae also are different in kind, e.g. those of 'animal' and 'knowledge' (for the differentiae of these are different), look and see if the meanings comprised under the same term are differentiae of genera that are different without being subaltern, as e.g. 'sharp' is of a 'note' and a 'solid'.
Paragraph 15 Again, see if the actual meanings included under the same term themselves have different differentiae, e.g. 'colour' in bodies and 'colour' in tunes:
Paragraph 16 Moreover, since the species is never the differentia of anything, look and see if one of the meanings included under the same term be a species and another a differentia, as (e.g.) 'clear' (lit.


UPHOME HTML by RBJ created 1996/11/25 modified 2009/04/26