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Aristotle - The Organon - index for TOPICA Book 4 Part 5

Placing what is a 'state' inside the genus 'activity'

  
Paragraph 1 Again, see if he has placed what is a 'state' inside the genus 'activity', or an activity inside the genus 'state', e.g. by defining 'sensation' as 'movement communicated through the body':
Paragraph 2 They also make a bad mistake who rank a 'state' within the 'capacity' that attends it, e.g. by defining 'good temper' as the 'control of anger', and 'courage' and 'justice' as 'control of fears' and of 'gains':
Paragraph 3 Sometimes, also, people state any kind of attendant feature as the genus, e.g. 'pain' as the genus of 'anger' and 'conception' as that of 'conviction'.
Paragraph 4 See, also, whether both naturally come to be anywhere in the same thing:
Paragraph 5 Again, see if the species partakes of the genus attributed only in some particular respect:
Paragraph 6 Sometimes also people place the whole inside the part without detection, defining (e.g.) 'animal' as an 'animate body';
Paragraph 7 See also if he has put anything that is blameworthy or objectionable into the class 'capacity' or 'capable', e.g. by defining a 'sophist' or a 'slanderer', or a 'thief' as 'one who is capable of secretly thieving other people's property'.
Paragraph 8 Also, see if he has put anything that is precious or desirable for its own sake into the class 'capacity' or 'capable' or 'productive' of anything.
Paragraph 9 Or see if he has put anything that exists in two genera or more into one of them only.
Paragraph 10 Moreover, people sometimes in converse order render genus as differentia, and differentia as genus, defining (e.g.) astonishment as 'excess of wonderment' and conviction as 'vehemence of conception'.
Paragraph 11 Sometimes, too, people make the bad mistake of putting an affection into that which is affected, as its genus, e.g. those who say that immortality is everlasting life:
Paragraph 12 Again, see if to an affection he has ascribed as genus the object of which it is an affection, by defining (e.g.) wind as 'air in motion'.


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