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Aristotle - The Organon - index for TOPICA Book 8 Part 12

An argument is called fallacious in four senses

  
Paragraph 1 An argument is clear in one, and that the most ordinary, sense, if it be so brought to a conclusion as to make no further questions necessary:
Paragraph 2 An argument is called fallacious in four senses:
Paragraph 3 (1) when it appears to be brought to a conclusion, and is not really so - what is called 'contentious' reasoning:
Paragraph 4 (2) when it comes to a conclusion but not to the conclusion proposed - which happens principally in the case of reductiones ad impossibile:
Paragraph 5 (3) when it comes to the proposed conclusion but not according to the mode of inquiry appropriate to the case, as happens when a non-medical argument is taken to be a medical one, or one which is not geometrical for a geometrical argument, or one which is not dialectical for dialectical, whether the result reached be true or false:
Paragraph 6 (4) if the conclusion be reached through false premisses:
Paragraph 7 Fallacy in argument is due to a mistake of the arguer rather than of the argument:


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