Aristotle - The Organon - index for DE SOPHISTICIS ELENCHIS Section 2 Part 4

Six sophistical methods involving language

Paragraph 1 There are two styles of refutation:
Paragraph 2 Amphiboly and ambiguity, then, depend on these modes of speech.
Paragraph 3 Upon division depend the propositions that 5 is 2 and 3, and odd, and that the greater is equal:
Paragraph 4 An argument depending upon accent it is not easy to construct in unwritten discussion;
Paragraph 5 Others come about owing to the form of expression used, when what is really different is expressed in the same form, e.g. a masculine thing by a feminine termination, or a feminine thing by a masculine, or a neuter by either a masculine or a feminine;
Paragraph 6 Refutations, then, that depend upon language are drawn from these common-place rules.
Paragraph 7 (1) that which depends upon Accident:
Paragraph 8 (2) the use of an expression absolutely or not absolutely but with some qualification of respect or place, or time, or relation:
Paragraph 9 (3) that which depends upon ignorance of what 'refutation' is:
Paragraph 10 (4) that which depends upon the consequent:
Paragraph 11 (5) that which depends upon assuming the original conclusion:
Paragraph 12 (6) stating as cause what is not the cause:
Paragraph 13 (7) the making of more than one question into one.

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