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Aristotle - The Organon - index for DE SOPHISTICIS ELENCHIS Section 2 Part 5

Seven fallacies unconnected with language

  
Paragraph 1 Fallacies, then, that depend on Accident occur whenever any attribute is claimed to belong in like manner to a thing and to its accident.
Paragraph 2 Those that depend on whether an expression is used absolutely or in a certain respect and not strictly, occur whenever an expression used in a particular sense is taken as though it were used absolutely, e.g. in the argument 'If what is not is the object of an opinion, then what is not is':
Paragraph 3 Other fallacies occur because the terms 'proof' or 'refutation' have not been defined, and because something is left out in their definition.
Paragraph 4 Those that depend on the assumption of the original point to be proved, occur in the same way, and in as many ways, as it is possible to beg the original point;
Paragraph 5 The refutation which depends upon the consequent arises because people suppose that the relation of consequence is convertible.
Paragraph 6 The refutation which depends upon treating as cause what is not a cause, occurs whenever what is not a cause is inserted in the argument, as though the refutation depended upon it.
Paragraph 7 Such, then, are the arguments that depend upon the consequent and upon false cause.


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