Index for Chapter VI
Of the Names of Substances
- 1. The common names of substances stand for sorts.
- 2. The essence of each sort of substance is our abstract idea to
which the name is annexed.
- 3. The nominal and real essence different.
- 4. Nothing essential to individuals.
- 5. The only essences perceived by us in individual substances are
those qualities which entitle them to receive their names.
- 6. Even the real essences of individual substances imply potential
- 7. The nominal essence bounds the species for us.
- 8. The nature of species, as formed by us.
- 9. Not the real essence, or texture of parts, which we know not.
- 10. Not the substantial form, which we know less.
- 11. That the nominal essence is that only whereby we distinguish
species of substances, further evident, from our ideas of finite
spirits and of God.
- 12. Of finite spirits there are probably numberless species, in a
continuous series or gradation.
- 13. The nominal essence that of the species, as conceived by us,
proved from water and ice.
- 14. Difficulties in the supposition of a certain number of real
- 15. A crude supposition.
- 16. Monstrous births.
- 17. Are monsters really a distinct species?
- 18. Men can have no ideas of real essences.
- 19. Our nominal essences of substances not perfect collections of
the properties that flow from their real essences.
- 20. Hence names independent of real essences.
- 21. But stand for such a collection of simple substances, as we have
made the name stand for.
- 22. Our abstract ideas are to us the measures of the species we
- 23. Species in animals not distinguished by generation.
- 24. Not by substantial forms.
- 25. The specific essences that are commonly made by men.
- 26. Therefore very various and uncertain in the ideas of different
- 27. Nominal essences of particular substances are undetermined by
nature, and therefore various as men vary.
- 28. But not so arbitrary as mixed modes.
- 29. Our nominal essences of substances usually consist of a few
obvious qualities observed in things.
- 30. Yet, imperfect as they thus are, they serve for common converse.
- 31. Essences of species under the same name very different in
- 32. The more general our ideas of substances are, the more
incomplete and partial they are.
- 33. This all accommodated to the end of speech.
- 34. Instance in Cassowaries.
- 35. Men determine the sorts of substances, which may be sorted
- 36. Nature makes the similitudes of substances.
- 37. The manner of sorting particular beings the work of fallible
men, though nature makes things alike.
- 38. Each abstract idea, with a name to it, makes a nominal
- 39. How genera and species are related to naming.
- 40. Species of artificial things less confused than natural.
- 41. Artificial things of distinct species.
- 42. Substances alone, of all our several sorts of ideas, have proper
- 43. Difficult to lead another by words into the thoughts of things
stripped of those abstract ideas we give them.
- 44. Instances of mixed modes named kinneah and niouph.
- 45. These words, kinneah and niouph, by degrees grew into common
use, and then the case was somewhat altered.
- 46. Instances of a species of substance named Zahab.
- 47. This piece of matter, thus denominated zahab by Adam, being
quite different from any he had seen before, nobody, I think, will
deny to be a distinct species, and to have its peculiar essence:
- 48. The abstract ideas of substances always imperfect, and therefore
- 49. Therefore to fix their nominal species, a real essense is
- 50. Which supposition is of no use.
- 51. Conclusion.
HTML by created 1994/10/29 modified 2015-06-14