This paper considers the "Knowledge Base" as a fifth generation application development system. It describes aspects of an architecture for a personal Knowledge Management system. The system is based on an untyped combinator-graph reduction engine running on a persistent applicative heap. The problem of knowledge representation and its relation to various "type systems" is discussed.
O. DOCUMENT CONTROL 0.1 Contents 0. DOCUMENT CONTROL 0.1 Contents 0.2 Bibliography l. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 2. OBJECTIVES AND ASSUMPTIONS 2.1 objectives 2.2 Assumptions about intelligence 2.3 Assumptions about knowledge representation 3. ARCHITECTURE 4. ENGINE 4.1 Hardware 4.2 Virtual Memory 4.3 Object Management 4.4 Combinator Engine 4.5 Garbage Collection and Session Control 5. LOGIC, KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND TYPES 5.1 Type Systems 5.2 Russell's Theory of Types 5.3 Axiomatic Set Theory 5.4 Intuitionistic Type Theory 5.5 Combinatory Logic 5.6 Types in Programming Languages 5.7 Data Dictionaries 5.8 Frames, Scripts, Semantic Nets., 5.9 Putting it all together 0.2 Bibliography [Bar81] Barr, Avron; Feigenbaum, Edward A: The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol.1. Pitman 1981. [Bur84] Burstall, R.; Lampson, B.: A Kernal Language for Abstract Data Types and Modules, Proc. Int. Symp. on Semantics of Data Types, 1984. [Con80] Constable, R.L.: Programs and Types. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Syracuse, N.Y. 1980. [Hei67] van Heijenoort, Jean: From Frege to Godel, a sourcebook in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931. Harvard University Press, 1967, [Hin72] Hindley, J.R.; Lercher, B.; Seldin, J.P.: Introduction to Combinatory Logic, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series 7. Cambridge University Press, 1972. [Lam80] Lambek, J.: From lambda-calculus to Cartesian Closed Categories, In - To H.B.Curry: Essays on Combinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus and Formalism. Ed. J.P.Seldin, J.R.Hindley; Academic Press, 1980. [Mar75] Martin-Lof, P.: An intuitionistic theory of types: predicative part. in Logic Colloquium 173, pp 73-118, North Holland 1975. [Mar82] Martin-Lof , Per: Constructive Mathematics and Computer Programming. In Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, VI (Proc. of the 6th Int. Cong. Hanover, 1979), North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1982). [Mik84] Nikhil, Rishiyur Sivaswami: An Incremental, Strongly-Typed Database Query Language. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984. [Owo84] Owoso, Gabriel olusegun: Data Description and Manipulation in Persistent Programming Languages. Doctoral Thesis CST-32-84. University of Edinburgh, December 1984. [Rus02] Russell, B.: Letter to Frege, In [Hei67]. [Rus08] Russell, B.: Mathematical Logic as based on the Theory of Types. American journal of Mathematics 30, 222-262. Also in [Hei67]. [Sch24] Schonfinkel, Moses: Uber die Bausteine der mathematischen Logik. Mathemtische Annalen 92, 305-316. Translated (On the building blocks of mathematical logic) in [Hei67]. [Tur79a] Turner, D.A.: Another Algorithm for Bracket Abstraction, Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 44, No. 2, June 1979. [Tur79b] Turner, D.A.: A new implementation technique for applicative languages. Software - Practice and Experience, Vol. 9, 31-49 (1979) [Tur84] Turner, D.A.: Functional programs as executable specifications. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 312, 363-388 (1984) & [Ung84] Ungar, David: Generation Scavenging: A non-disruptive High Performance Storage Reclamation Algorithm, Comm. ACM, [Zer08] Zermelo, Ernst: Untersuchungen uber die Grundlagen der Mengenlehre 1, Mathematische Annalen 65, 261-281. Also translated ("Investigations in the foundations of set theory I") in [Hei67].1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
This paper presents aspects of a proposed architecture for a Knowledge Management System. This is viewed as a fifth generation support system for personal application development. Present day (fourth generation) application development systems are built around and upon database management systems, the author anticipates that future application development systems will be built around knowledge base management systems which will subsume the functionality of current database mangement systems.
Though the prime objective is to apply state of the art techniques to Personal Application Development Systems, some of the key features of the architecture have been determined by longer term objectives. Thus it is primarily consideration of Artificial Intelligence as a long term objective which has determined the reflexive structure of the proposed system, and these considerations have also been influential in the choice of an applicative infrastructure with both virtual store management, object management and persistence hidden away at as low a level as possible.
After setting the context with a statement of objectives and assumptions, the main body of the exposition begins in section 3 with an overview of the proposed architecture. A reasonably detailed account is then given of the "engine" in section 4, followed by a discussion in section 5 of the knowledge base management system which runs on this engine, The most interesting problems lie in this latter area, and remain as yet, unresolved.
2. OBJECTIVES AND ASSUMPTIONS
This section provides a backcloth against which the rationale for some of the features described later in the paper may be better understood.
It has been my aim to combine consideration of long term issues in artificial intelligence with more practical achievable targets.
To provide for the long term:
O1: To adopt an architecture which is consistent with what we believe to be necessary for supporting artificial intelligence.
And the medium term:
O2: To apply state of the art techniques to developing "End-User Knowledge Base Application Development Systems".
2.2 Assumptions about Intelligence
These "assumptions" determine the influence of O1 on the chosen architecture,
Al: That an intelligent machine is "universal",
It can do anything that any other intelligent machine can do, once taught, (and hence anything that any Turing Machine can do)
A2: An intelligent machine is reflexive and self modifying.
It can study itself and can alter the way it does things.
A3: An intelligent machine must be able to reason about algorithms.
This is a very exacting requirement judging by the very great difficulty experienced by human beings in proving properties of programs. The main practical effect of this upon the proposed architecture is in chosing an engine which has a tranparent semantic structure and in which the differences between primary and secondary store, and between persistent and transient data are not obtrusive. It also influences what we consider to be an acceptable logic.
2.3 Assumptions about Knowledge Representation
The literature of AI contains a good deal of discussion of the merits of various knowledge representation systems, In these discussions logic (usually meaning first order predicate logic) is compared against other forms of knowledge representation such as frames or semantic nets. As a matter of terminology, any formal language for representing propositions, if provided with some means of deriving true conclusions given true premises, I will call a logic. Since I have no intention of chosing a knowledge representation system in which derivations are not possible, chosing a knowledge representation system comes down to chosing a logic.
This is not an observation on the merits of any particular logic or on the merits of any form of knowledge representation not normally described as a logic.
These observations are represented by the following assumptions:
Kl: A knowledge representation system is a way of encoding propositions or facts as finite data structures in a digital computer,
I avoid speaking of "languages" since this term has strong links with written, or writeable representations. Computer based representations may be networks which do not correspond naturally to a written notation.
K2: A knowledge representation system must come with some operations (just as a data type must have operations available upon it). The operations appropriate to knowledge representation is an inference or derivation, which deduces a new fact from a given set of facts.
K3: Since Kl and K2 are sufficient conditions for a system to be called a "logic", we may infer that all knowledge representation systems are logics.
A fourth generation application development system may be viewed as a thick sandwich thus:
|Application Development System|
An application development system (consisting of database mangement software and high level facilities for specifying and running an application) is implemented on some computer. Using this and therefore logically "on top" of it, we build an application.
An analogous sandwich for an "intelligent system" might be:
|Domain Specific Knowledge|
The remaining sections of this paper consider the bottom two layers of this sandwich. The top layer is considered only is so far as is necessary to give some account of the lower layers, i.e. no specific applications are considered.
The bottom layer is strictly firm rather than hard, It is beyond the limits of self modif ication of the system, and is theref ore in that sense hard. But it is in fact a nice machine, intended to be easy to reason about (without being intolerably inefficient), and built with a layer of software on whatever hardware is available.
The reflexive nature of the "Intelligent" bit means that it is continually modifying itelf (and/or the domain knowlege, which is also soft) as a result of its interactions with its environment. Initially this self modification will be strictly under the control of the user.
The "engine" too is layered.
|Virtual Memory (soft)|
|Hardware (8085, 64KRAM, 5Mb Disc)|
Some of this work has been prototyped on an 8-bit ICL personal computer. This has very little effect upon the architecture chosen. It effects primarily the virtual store management, Object management is marginally effected by the size of the virtual address space.
4.2 Virtual Memory
The details of virtual memory management are hardware dependent.
Since this is done by software it is important to minimise the number of passes through the address decode path and the length of that path. The system is designed on the assumption that the engine above it will retrieve objects into private space and then operate upon them, resulting in one traversal for each use of an object.
The free space in the 64k RAM is divided int 256 byte pages, Virtual addresses 24 bits wide are used giving an addressing space of 16Mb. This address space is mapped in 4Mb sections onto up to 4 CP/M f i les. one of these files will be the "knowledge base", another the workfile, and the remaining two are available to effect import and export of data to more conventional CP/M files (though this might also be done without using a segment of virtual memory).
Virtual to real address mapping is done by page tables, One Master Table is permanently in RAM and contains 256 1 byte page numbers for second level Page Tables. The (second level) page tables are present in RAM just as long as they refer to data pages currently in RAM, All page tables contain a zero for the page number of a page not currently in RAM. The most significant byte of the 24 bit virtual address is used to index down the master table, and the second byte is used to index down the appropriate page table, giving rapid access to the page containing the information if it is in RAM. Otherwise a more tortuous path causes the page to be read from disc,
bit 0________________7________________15______________23 | | | | |________________|_________________|______________| ___________| | | | _______| | | MT | | | ____ | | | |____| | | | |____| | | |->|____|=================>____ | | |____| | |____| | |____| | Page |-->|____|==================> ____ | | | |____| | |____| |____| |-->|____| |____|4.3 Object Management
Each Objects consist of:
Each pointer occupies 3 bytes.
An object may not run over a page boundary and therefore it is limited to 256 bytes in total size.
The persistent Heap is, from the object management viewpoint a directed graph with information stored at each node of the graph,
Pointers are virtual addresses, without any form of indirection. This simple arrangement is made possible by the fact that the system is applicative, If this engine were used to displace the operating system on a personal workstation then the virtual address space could map directly onto the hardware addresses of the secondary storage, improving optimisation of secondary store access, A fortiori this could also be done with write once optical storage,
"Object management" is quite rudimentary in this system, It consists of allocating space for new objects, either in the persistent heap, or in the workspace heap, The combinator engine will select the storage area according to whether the cell required will form part of the final result which will replace the current value of the persistent heap. Each of these areas is treated as a never decreasing stack by the allocator.
Garbage collection takes place at two levels. The workspace is regularly collected by copying, for which purpose it is allocated two segments of virtual address space. Since it contains only objects created since the last time the persistent heap was saved this should be tolerably efficient. The fact that the engine is applicative will increase the proportion of inaccessible cells in the workspace and therefore makes a copying strategy more optimal.
The persistent heap is never collected during a session. In fact the algorithm used by the engine guarantees that the only time that garbage is "created" on the persistent heap is when old generations of the knowledge base are deleted, and this may only take place between sessions (i.e. when the heap is being saved). All transient objects created during a session are allocated in the workspace and never find their way onto the persistent heap, this simplifies garbage collection of the persistent heap. See later sections for further details of the garbage collection strategy.
Use of an applicative heap creates a high level of structure sharing (especially if old generations of the knowledge base are retained). which is entirely invisible to the user. If any shared object is edited through one access route, then a new copy is created, The change is only visible in the new generation of the database, and only through the one access route, So the system behaves as if no structure sharing were taking place. If it is desired to give access to the same object through multiple routes (e.g. to several users) in such a way that updates are visible through all routes, then this must be done by means other than a simple virtual address pointer (which is semantically equivalent to a copying operation). For such purposes a second level of object management may be required above the combinator engine, which requirement is not addressed in this paper.
4.4 Combinator Engine
The combinator engine creates a higher level view of the heap, in which the objects have particular semantic significance. The semantics of the heap are determined by the operation of "elementary reduction", which defines various value preserving local transformations on rooted object graphs. The transitive closure of "elementary reduction" is "reduction". Two special statuses for rooted graphs are defined.
A rooted graph is in "normal" form if no reductions are defined on any graph or subgraph accessible from the root.
A rooted object graph is cannonical if either it is in normal form or if the root of the graph is not itself reducible and if every rooted subgraph accessible from the root via "strict" pointers is in cannonical form.
The combinator engine does two things:
In practice these two are interleaved, Note that no transcription from the persistent heap to the workspace takes place, that part of the resulting graph which is taken without modification from the persistent heap will not be transcribed either into the workspace or back onto the persistent heap, Transcription onto the persistent heap takes place only when an object is certain to be "alive" in the result of the session.
The current prototype combinator engine has a set of combinators drawn from [Tur79a,b], Future implementations will use a different set of combinators for the following reasons:
4.4.1 Node Types
The combinator engine is built onto the "object management" system, it makes special use of certain information at the nodes of the object graph, which enables the engine to identify certain Illegitimate reductions", The information of significance to the engine at each node is:
A boolean indicating whether the node is a primitive function or a constructor.
For each arc or pointer from the node, a boolean indicating whether the arc repesents an unevaluated strict argument to the function or constructor.
Nodes may be classified as follows:
a) Constructors without pointers, known as atoms,
b) Constructors with pointers
c) Primitive Functions
Primitive functions have special significance to the engine and are distinguished by the value at the node, Wherever a node has arcs leaving it, there is included in the data at that node a boolean value for each such arc. In the case of all nodes except DC nodes (for which see below), these booleans indicate whether the relevant arc refers to a "strict" argument or not, A strict argument is one which must be in cannonical form before the node may be reduced (if it is a primitive function), or before the node may be considered cannonical.
4.4.2 Primitive Functions
Primitive functions may be further classified into operators and combinators. Operators take the data values stored at the nodes of their reduced operands and compute a result from these values. A typical operator would be arithmetic addition, or string concatenation. A generous set of such operations is assumed to be supported by the engine. They will not be further considered here.
There are a large number of combinators, mostly variants on a small number of themes. This we have selector combinators, and constructor combinators.
Selector combinators use an arbitrary length row of integers embedded in the data at the selector node (and hence in a sense in the name of the combinator). to peform a sequence of selections on their argument. A selection is the operation of following an arc. A selection on node n using integer i consists of following the ith pointer from n if it exists. If we represent the node obtained by following the ith pointer from n by n[i], and a selector by S(i,j,..z), then:
S(4,5,2)n = n[41[51[21 and is obtained by following three arcs starting from n. The null selector So is the identity function.
e.g. : / \ / \ S(2,3) \ /|\ ========> F / | \ A | C /|\ / | \ D E FDistributing-constructor (DC) combinators are the means provided for propagating environments, and therefore stand instead of S.C.B [Tur79b] and S',C',B' in [Tur79a]. They also serve instead of K.
They do this in two ways, Firstly by providing for the distribution of environments over an arbitrary set of arcs from a node to be constructed, and secondly by permitting the values for the free variables in an expression to be aggregated into a single environment and thus simplifying the propagation of the values to the appropriate nodes of the graph.
By contrast with [Tur79b] which uses U to force functions expecting pairs as arguments to transmit the values as if they were curried, we provide combinators to encourage the compiler to transmit as single structured arguments, sets of values which may have resulted from multiple abstractions, The availability of the selector functions inakes it efficient to select single values from such an aggregated environment. There is a trade off between the cost of propagating values down through a number of levels of abstraction, and the work involved in aggregating the values of multiple arguments to reduce the level of abstraction, and then selecting values from the aggregate when required. The S and DC combinators offer the compiler flexibility, which it may exploit if it so choses to optimise execution time.
A DC combinator contains in the data at the node the following information. For each arc except the first from the DC, a boolean indicating whether the environment is to be propagated to the arc in question. A DC is always strict in the first argument only. On application of a DC to a single argument (which will in general be a complete 'environment'), a new node is created. The data at the new node consists of the atom referred to by the first pointer at the DC node. This data includes the strictness flags. The pointers from the new node will point to values obtained by selective propagation of argument to the DC to the values referred to by the remaining pointers from the DC, Where a pointer is not selected for propagation the value of the corresponding pointer in the new node will be identical to that in the DC node.
Where a pointer is selected for propagation then the corresponding pointer in the resulting node will refer to an application of the graph referred to by the pointer in the DC to the argument supplied for the DC.
e.g. : Q / \ \ DC1 \ =======> : / \ A / \ Q B B A : ___Q___ / \ / | \ / A : C : __DC101_ ======> / \ / \ / | | \ B A D A Q B C DThe resulting node may be of any sort. i.e. it may be either a constructor, or a primitive function (or a DC),
4.4.2 Propagation of Context
4.4.3 The Indecisive Pseudo-Combinator
In , David Turner states that the problem of whether logic languages can be implemented using combinators is unsolved. Putting aside the matter of efficiency, the answer must be that they can. Since a suitable set of combinators is computationally universal, anything that can be done with a computer can be done with combinators, An implementation of a logic language written in a functional would secure the desired effect if the functional language were implemented with combinators.
There are considerations however which suggest that a "good" implementation of a logic language would be needlessly inefficient if implemented with combinators, and these considerations have lead me to devise a "psuedo-combinator" to support the sort of computations which are necessary in a "good" implementation of a logic language.
Considering the use made of predicates in PROLOG, and what might be required in a functional language to achieve the same effect. A predicate in PROLOG may be regarded as an algorithm for listing all the objects which satisfy the predicate. We might therefore treat the value of the predicate as the list of objects which it enumerates,
When predicates are combined to def ine further predicates, these operations may be regarded as operations on the lists which the original predicates denote,
indicates that the predicate P is satisfied by those objects which satisfy both predicates Q and R. i.e. its value contains the intersection of Q and R.
P(X):- Q(X);R(X). indicates that P contains the union of Q and R.
In PROLOG it is not possible to specify that P is exactly the union of Q and R, but negation by failure makes that assumption if no other clauses are present with P at the head. In PROLOG also the implementation is not "good", by which I mean for present purposes, that the implementation fails to fully capture the semantics of disjunction of predicates. In PROLOG if Q produces an inf inite list, then P will not enumerate the members of R.
If we try to introduce these operations into a functional language we find a problem. There is not and cannot be any deterministic computable operation on an arbitrary pair recursive enumerations which yeilds an enumeration which includes just those objects which are members of either of the original enumerations. (such an operation could be used to solve Turing's halting problem) We can construct an algorithm which will form a list which is the union of the two operands, but
4.4.2 I/O combinators
Some means is necessary to enable the computation to take account of the values typed by the user at the keyboard.
I take a purist and seek a method which does not introduce assumptions about the order of evaluation of the program, and which does not violate the requirement for referential transparency.
I have a solution which almost succeeds in this, in so far as:
Programs will not normally be sensitive to evaluation order except in that the arguments to strict fuctions are evaluated before evaluation of the function.
The only possible effect of changes in order of evaluation will be on values output, The result will always be the samer provided the inputs are the same.
Referential transparency is guaranteed.
This is achieved for both interactive console I/0 and for any other sort of I/O by provision of the special function e, which is used to represent the environment. e takes an argument, which we will call a stream identifier, and delivers as result a "stream" and a new environment function. It is necessary to return a replacement environment in order that subsequent uses of the same stream identifier may return a different stream without violating referential integrity.
Once invoked the original value of the environment is transformed into a constant function delivering the same value whatever its argument, This guarantees its referential integrity, and discourages use of an environment more than once. The function or combinator e therefore works as shown below:
: / \ : : e / \ ========> / \ e i p sWhere s is the stream indicated by identifier i.
Also when e is invoked, the leaf occupied by the e is replaced by a constant function with the same value as e i. k(e i),
The streams returned by e behave in a manner similar to e. In particular a console I/0 stream, s. accepts a string for output to the console and returns a pair, the first of which is a console input and the second of which is a further console stream, Streams also should therefore be used only once, and to Guarantee referential integrity, the stream once invoked is replaced in the graph by a constant function which returns its first value. A stream (and an environment) therefore behaves semantically as though it is a constant function which returns a value and another constant function. It achieves I/0 not by returning a different value on each invokation but by not deciding what value it is going to have until actually invoked. Since it is a strict function, we are guaranteed that the argument (i.e. console output) is evaluated before the stream is called and therefore we can ensure that the output appears on the console before the input is read.
It is still possible to write a program which makes the console output indeterministic, but the value of even such a program remains a deterministic function of the values typed at the keyboard.
4.5 Garbage Collection and session control
The persistent heap consists of a list of versions of the data/knowledge base, The most recent version of the database is at the head of the list. Each version of the database consists of a pair, the first element of which must be a function. Each session consists of computing the value new heap defined by the equations below, and replacing the persistene- heap with this value. i.e. each session consists of a single assignment. In the following equations function application is represented by juxtaposition (function on the left).
Were it not that the garbage collection strategy chosen requires knowledge of the top level structure of the heap we could do this simply by the assignment:
new-heap = head-of persistent-heap persistent-heap
In this case the function (head-of persistent-heap) is responsible for looking after retention or deletion of previous generations of the database as well as performing any transformations required by the user to form the new value of the heap. Our garbage collection however relies upon the following characteristics of the persistent heap and the combinator engine:
current-version = head-of persistent_heap
function = head-of current-version
result = function persistent_heap environment
The result is obtained by applying the function to the persistent heap and also to the special combinator "environment".
This is the only step which is performed by the graph reduction engine.
new-version = head-of result
deletion-list = tail-of result
The tail of the result is a list of integers known as the deletion list, which indicates whether the user has elected to delete any previous generations of the database.
pruned-heap = delete persistent-heap deletion-list
The persistent heap is pruned by deleting previous generations as specified by the deletion list, This operation is not undertaken by graph reduction since it is linked to the garbage collection process and needs to be done simply by overwriting pointers in the top level list.
new-heap = pair new-version pruned-heap
The new persistent heap is obtained by adding the new version on the front of the pruned list of database versions.
The computation resulting in value "result" will in general consist in any number of editing/processing operations on the database iterated until the user requests to quit, or to save. Until this point (when the user requests quit or save) all new space allocated during the computation will usually have been allocated in the workspace, since the value of the top node of the "new version" will not yet have been computed, During this process the user may have requested deletion of one or more previous generations of the database, Since deletion of previous generations is not done by the usual applicative method of deleting elements from a list, and since it is also used to trigger garbage collection on the persistent heap, deletion is effected by returning the position in the list of the versions to be deleted.
This scheme enables garbage collection on the persistent heap to be kept to an orderly minimum. Because the graph reduction engine is organised to transcribe the result of the session onto the persistent heap, but to allocate all storage not certain to be a part of the result in the workspace, the result of a session in the persistent heap is perfectly dense. All intermediate results were held in workspace, Hence garbage collection on the persistent heap is never necessary during the session. It takes place only at the end of a session when previous generations of the database may be deleted.
At the end of a session the persistent heap may be collected by a copying process which can cover any most recent set of generations of the database, The user can maintain a reasonably complete historical record of his database if he choses to do so, by keeping, say, the last generation for each preceding year, the last generation for each of the preceding four months, four days, and the last four generations. Using this scheme and garbage collecting at each close of session just as far as the oldest generation deleted, the end-of-session garbage collection will normally cover just the last four generations (and this of course means just the space occupied by the changes made in those generations). Once daily the collection will cover eight generations, once monthly twelve, and annually sixteen,
5. LOGIC, KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION, AND TYPES
In this section we address the soft centre of our architectural -- sandwich. It is a matter of aspirations rather than achievements, and so the purpose of this section is to describe what I am looking for, to give my best ideas on where it might be found, and some reason to suppose that it can be found.
The behaviour of the Knowledge Base System depends importantly upon the function "head_of head_of persistent_heap" (see section4.5). This is subject to mo(Fificatio-n by the user-(or by itself on behalf of the user), and might at the end of application development have its capabilities reduced to set the application in concrete. More likely however, the end-user will wish to continue evolution of the system and the full functionality will be retained.
The behaviour of this system can be considered from two different viewpoints.
It is more easily understood from the viewpoint of 'end-user- application-development-system". From this perspective, the "function" is a sophisticated structure editor with which the user edits the persistent heap. The persistent heap is in this case a single (highly structured) data object. A powerful type system enables the behaviour of the editor to be adjusted automatically according to the type of the object under consideration. This enables the functionality of an incremental programming system, and a database query language to be embedded into the structure editor. Type information provides a generalised way of specifying a mapping between the form of data as stored, and the form of data as viewed by the user. It provides a unified system for derivation of values from the database, for transformation from user oriented representations to engine oriented representations (including compilation), and includes all forms of integrity checking. Persistence is of course, built in. From this perspective, the function performed by a "directory", would be covered by something like a "set of bindings", a data type fully comprehended by the programming system, To select a directory, is to nominate a set of bindings as providing the current name environment,
This perspective, viewing the system in programming language terms, does not carry us quite into the "fifth generation". The persistent heap does not qualify as a "Knowledge Base" until it is perceived as expressing a proposition, and manipulated in a manner consistent with that perception, For this purpose we seek, not a programming language, but a logic (embedded within which we may hope to find a programming language). This perspective need make no difference whatever to the stored form of the data. A directory becomes a set (conjunction) of bindings (interpreted as conditionals). Nominating the current directory is interpreted as adopting a hypothesis, or making an assumption. A view on the database, becomes a deduction from the knowledge base (this does not imply that the way such things are computed is changed).
I was hoping to decompose this problem into two layers, the lower dealing with the "programming" system, and the upper with the "logic", However, a type system as powerful as that suggested above must be so close to a logic that little benefit would be obtained by that stratification. Another possible stratification might be to take a type-free functional programming system first, and then add the types and the logic together. I now believe that a simpler and more elegant solution will be obtained by going straight for the logic.
The logic is the type system, and is expected to provide most of what is provided by type systems and metadata, in both logics and programming/database systems. A discussion of type systems therefore ensues, culminating in some suggestions on how a logic may be devised which satisfies my perception of the requirements for an Intelligent Knowledge Based System.
5.1 Type Systems
The word "type" is used both in Mathematical Logic and in Computer Science in the names of systems with quite varied purposes. Alongside these systems there are alternative solutions to similar problems which do not use "types", either in name or in form, there are similar systems which look in some respects like type systems, perform some of the same functions, but do not call themselves type systems.
To assist in a useful analysis we can identify a number of objectives addressed by type systems, and a number of features of those type systems. The following classifications are not offered as definitive, but are chosen to facilitate the discussion which follows.
5.1.1 Objectives of Type Systems
These adjectives are used to describe type systems for programming languages.
A Strong type system is one which permits all type errors to be detected.
A Weak type system is in which type errors are not necessarily detected either during compilation or when the program is run.
A Static type system is one in which all type errors are detected during compilation.
A Dynamic type system is one in which some type errors may be detected during execution of the program.
A Monomorphic type system is one in which each function definition describes a function with a single f ixed type.
A Polymorphic type system is one in which a function definition may describe a collection of functions of different types, or a single function which will accept arguments and deliver values of more than one type,
A type system is Tight if it can be used to specify completely the required functional characteristics of a program. By this we mean that the type system can be used to fully verify the correctness of the program.
A type system is Loose if the constraints expressible in the type system are not sufficient to competely specify the required behaviour of the program.
A static type system is usually completely decidable
5.l.3 Conflicts and Confusions
The first type system was introduced by Russell to make his logic consistent. In [Rus08] he states:
Thus all our contradictions have in comnion the assumption of a totality such that, if it were legitimate, it would at once be enlarged by new members defined in terms of itself.This leads us to the rule: "Whatever involves all of a collection must not be one of the collection"...'
In Computer Science however, we find numerous cases where it is valuable to violate this principle. In the untyped lambda calculus we find a domain 'containing' in some sense, its own function space. My 'knowledge base' involves a function which is applied to itself. The requirements of type dynamism or polymorphism suggest that a "universal type" (which would include itself) is desirable, and a step in this direction has been taken in Pebble [Bur84], with its type 'type'.
Nothwithstanding the pressure from Computer Science, I know of no type theory as a logic which contains a universal type and is consistent, Martin-Lofls Intuitionistic Type Theory [Mar] originally included such a type, but was shown to be inconsistent. Indeed, to include a universal type seems almost to vitiate the whole purpose of having a type system at all. Even where classical set theory is formalised without using a type theory, Russell's rule above is adhered to (e,g, in [Zer08]).
The problem is then: how do we reason about a highly reflexive system without running into contradictions?
Two recent Theses, [Nik84] and [Owo84], though not using the terminology I have used here (since "strong" in [Nik84] appears to mean "strong and static" in my sense, and "weak" to include "strong but dynamic" in my sense) have argued eloquently in favour of respectively static ([Nik841, but there called "strong") and dynamic ([Owo841) type systems. The function "head of head of persistent_heap" is a perfect example of the sort of function which Owoso uses to justify dynamic types, since it must operate intelligently on objects of any type. Can we reconcile the benefits of complete type checking at compile time with the need for complete flexibility at run time?
There are some indications that this should be possible. In Algol68, the Union of Modes construct shows how a small amount of flexibility can be introduced without compromising compile time verification. This is done by providing a syntax recognisable to the compiler which enables a union of types to be coerced to a specific type, subject to a check inserted by the compiler on the type of the object. A more powerful system is found in the "disjoint union of a family of types" introduced by Per Martin-Lof in his intuitionistic type theory [Mar75,82], and taken up by Burstall and Lampson in Pebble (as "dependent products" [Bur84]). These suggest that sufficient flexibility may be obtainable in a strong statically typed language. In Pebble, for example the type: "(t type) xx t" looks as if it might serve instead of dynamic types (though I don't think it quite does).
In Miranda, David Turner proposes a language in which type declarations are optional. In this case the compiler is able to undertake static type checking without the need of declarations. This is viewed as a considerable merit in the language, providing much of the benefit of type declarations without the pain. When prototyping this could make program development faster. At the other end of a spectrum, however, where we are particularly anxious to ensure correctness, we might wish to use the type system to guarantee correctness. In this case the type of a function is its specification, and correctness against the specification can hardly be assured if the type was not declared, In this latter case, not only is the type required to be declared, but the type correctness may not be decidable, and a proof of correctness may have to be supplied. In considering "intelligent" systems, we may even require the system to be able to program itself, i.e., taking the type (as specification) only, to discover both the algorithm, and the proof of correctness,
Ideally the user should be able to decide this for himself. If we chose a type system which provides a "universal type" as well as the sort of expressiveness found in "intuitionistic type theory" then the user might be given the liberty to specify his program as precisely or as loosely as he choses and accept a corresponding level of error checking by the system.
Its not even clear that a type system is the right way to achieve what we require. Clearly we need a way of expressing meta-information for a wide variety of purposes, But this can be done by means other than type systems, For example an untyped combinatory logic could be used, and seems superficially appropriate to an untyped combinator engine.
5.2 Russell's Theory of Types
In 1901 Bertrand Russell discovered a paradox in Frege's 'Grundlagen' which he later communicated to Frege in [Rus02]. This paradox became known as Russell's Paradox, and concerns the incoherence of the notion of 'the set containing every set which does not contain itself', and hence of any system of logic in which the existence of such a set may be inferred. (such as that of Frege)
Russell then proceeded to spend the best part of the next seven years in developing his 'Theory of Types' [Rus08]. The purpose of this was to provide a consistent logic suitable as a foundation for classical mathematics, together with a satisfactory philosophical justification (i.e. one which supported his thesis that mathematics is just logic).
Though the details and complexities of Russell's system are no longer with us, the basic idea is established as a means of constructing a consistent logic (even the name 'first order predicate logic' seems to aknowledge the philosophical validity of type theory before it decides to steer clear), and has found its way into Cornputer Science (which in any case, Russell might have argued, is just applied logic).
The basic idea is that we should learn to walk before we try to run, or that before we can construct an object, we must first have constructed all the objects used in its definition.
What is the significance of all this? Well, for my present purposes it highlights a problem. If we need a logic for knowledge representation which is able to express reasoning about the algorithms which we apply to the persistent heap, then we find a conflict between the need for flexibility in the type system, and the need for consistency in the logic. owosa, in [Owo841. argues that to provide utilities which operate on a persistent heap we must have "dynamic types". This means that names used in algorithms may refer to values whos type is not known at compile time,
A type system in which some names are exempt from constraint provides no protection from paradoxes, and is logically pretty much the same as a Theory of Types which includes a Universal Type. This flies right in the face of Russell's essential insight-that the logical paradoxes are all associated with the use of such totalities. What we need is a logic with a type system which includes a universal type which will serve for dynamic typing, but which is still consistent.
5.3 Axiomatic Set Theory
While Russell was finding a way round the paradoxes from a primarily philosophical viewpoint, Zermelo was patching up set theory from a more practical mathematical standpoint. In [Zer081 he published, at about the same time as Russell published his type theory, an axiom system for set theory, This avoided Russell's paradox without using a type system, but not without mechanisms which ensured its adherance to the principle enunciated by Russell, In this theory the axioms prescribe carefully how new sets may be constructed from sets already available, and proscribe sets which contain themselves (and hence the set of all sets, the set theoretic variant of the type of all types).
This demonstrates that a type theory is not the only way to avoid contradictions, but doesn't help us past Russell's principle.
4 Intuitionistic Type Theory
More recently an Intuitionistic Type Theory has been developed by Per Martin-Lof ([Mar75,821 as a foundation
5.5 Combinatory Logic
The essential ideas behind Combinatory Logic were first presented to the Gottingen Mathematical Society by Moses Schonf inkel in 1920 and published in [Sch24]. A recent concise account may be found in [Lam80], or in greater depth in [Hin72]. Combinatory logic, now available in type and untyped varieties is a logic which avoids the use of variables and takes the function as its basic element. It is closely related to Church's Lambda Calculus and hence to pure functional programming languages. This latter connection has recently resulted in an upsurge of interest in applying cofnbinators for the implementation of functional languages ([Tur79a,b,84]).
Since combinatory logic permits functions to be in the domain of other functions, it is as expressive as classical set theory, and is therefore a contender for our present purposes. It has the advantage of untyped formulations which functions to be applied not only to other functions, but even to themselves, which is necessitated by our proposed architecture. Our machine actually is a combinator engine and this would therefore strongly suggest that a combinatory logic would be appropriate.
5.6 Types in Programming Languages
5.7 Data Dictionaries
As catch all depositories for "meta-datal' are useful places to look to broaden our view of what we may expect from a comprehensive type system, In a Data Dictionary one can store virtually any knowledge. Their limitations are apparent not in what you may put in them but in what may be done with the information.
At a primitive level they are used to store information which looks very like the type information in a programming language. In particular, the details of the stored form of the data in the database.
This may be supplemented by various other sorts of information which enable the data management system to perform automatically functions which would otherwise have to be programmed in detail. So not only the stored forms of data but also the required displayed forms will be recorded, Depending on the degree of sophistication of the data management system this may involve simple data conversion, or complex derived viewing mechanisms, It may also involve forms for viewing or updating the data, and constraints to which updates on the data must conform, The emphasis is on declarative specifications, but dictionaries may also allow procedures to be nominated for various processing on the data,
The data dictionary may provide for recording a "conceptual model" which relates this stored data to the real world, In a database system, the conceptual models are likely to be strictly documentary. In a knowledge base we would expect the system to be able to utilise the conceptual information as well.
Just how much of this can be fitted into a "type system"? Well if we identify types and propositions, and allow propositions about algorithms, all of it.
5.8 Frames, Scripts, Semantic Nets....
Texts on AI (e.g, [Bar811) compare and constrast different knowledge representation schemes, among which "Logic" (generally meaning first order predicate logic) usually numbers. Some texts show that the semantics of various of these representation schemes may be explained by providing a mapping from these schemes into a suitable logic. The logic which we seek must satisfy the stronger claim that it strictly subsumes most other forms of knowledge representation,
In database systems we expect good support for separation between the stored form of data, and the end-user's view of the data. This is also expected in our Knowledge Management system. We may design a data type which correponds to any chosen form of knowledge representation, Defining the semantics of such a data type as a knowledge representation system simply amounts to defining a function which maps the data type onto a known representation, Alternatively rules of inference may be specified which operate directly on the data type in question.
We claim therefore that a "satisfactory" logic does not compete with other forms of knowledge representation, but rather subsumes them, allowing the user or "knowledge enginee@"" to determine the "stored form" most appropriate to the sort of knowledge in question. This encompasses even procedural forms of knowledge representation, since algorithms (and propositions and proofs) are required to be "first class objects".
5.9 Putting it all together
It's easy to fantasise about an ideal unspecified language which is all things to all men. What grounds are there for supposing that any logic meeting my requirements can be devised?
In terms of expressiveness I believe there is little room for doubt. Logic demonstrates time and time again, that even the highest levels of expressiveness can be attained with a very small number of simple primitives. The danger is that any logic sufficiently expressive will be neither consistent nor mechanisable. This is particularly worrying when we include in our requirements the need for a "universal type", which destroys the effectiveness of a type system in safeguarding against paradoxes.
However, type systems are not the only way to arrive at consistency, I propose therefore that consistency be ensured by means other than the type system, Adding a type system to a logic which is already consistent should permit the universal type to be retained without giving rise to inconsistency. A suitable logic in this case might be derived from one of the variants of untyped combinatory logic described in [Hin72] chapter 10.
Furthermore, if we examine the purpose of the logic, we find reason for optimism. The logic is essentially describing the behaviour of models of the universe which consist of finite rooted combinator graphs, and effectively computable functions on such graphs (also reresented as finite rooted combinator graphs). If we take care to bear in mind this interpretation as we define the logic, and ensure that all the constructions and rules of derivation are consistent with that interpretation, then we are assured of a concrete interpretation of all the formulae of the logic, i.e. a model.
This gives us reasonable grounds for expecting a consistency proof analogous to that obtained for constructive arithmetic using Gödel's "functions of finite type", defined using combinators (for an outline of such a proof see [Hin72] chapter 11),
Mechanisability may perhaps also be assured by keeping in mind the constructive interpretation, The predicates definable in the logic must all correspond to recursively enumerable sets, This should ensure at least a theoretical mechanisability. We may hope to convert this into a practically effective mechanisability by judicious use of the type system, which will enable search spaces to be determined more precisely. Introduction of the indecisive pseudo-combinator is also intended to expedite mechanisation.