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Notes by RBJ on

Meaning and Necessity

A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic

by Rudolf Carnap

Content Listing Only (enlarged edition, 1956)

I.THE METHOD OF EXTENSION AND INTENSION
 1Preliminary Explanations
 2L-Concepts
 3Equivalence and L-Equivalence
 4Classes and Properties
 5Extensions and Intensions
 6Extensions and Intensions of Sentences
 7Individual Descriptions
 8Frege's Method for Descriptions
 9Extensions and Intensions of Individual Expressions
 10Variables
 11Extensional and Intensional Contexts
 12The Principles of Interchangeability
 13Sentences about Beliefs
 14Intensional Structure
 15Applications of the Concept of Intensional Structure
 16Lewis' Method of Meaning Analysis
II.L-DETERMINACY
 17L-Determinate Designators
 18The Problem of L-Determinacy of Individual Expressions
 19Definition of L-Determinacy of Individual Expressions
 20L-Determinacy of Predicators
 21Logical and Descriptive Signs
 22L-Determinate Intensions
 23Reduction of Extensions to Intensions
III.THE METHOD OF THE NAME-RELATION
 24The Name-Relation
 25An Ambiguity in the Method of the Name-Relation
 26The Unnecessary Duplication of Names
 27Names of Classes
 28Frege's Distinction between Nominatum and Sense
 29Nominatum and Sense: Extension and Intension
 30The Disadvantages of Frege's Method
 31The Antinomy of the Name-Relation
 32Solutions of the Antinomy
IV.ON METALANGUAGES FOR SEMANTlCS
 33The Problem of a Reduction of the Entities
 34The Neutral Metalanguage M'
 35M' Is Not Poorer than M
 36Neutral Variables in M'
 37On the Formulation of Semantics in the Neutral Metalanguage M'
 38On the Possibility of an Extensional Metalanguage for Semantics
V.ON THE LOGIC OF MODALITIES
 39Logical Modalities
 40Modalities and Variables
 41Semantical Rules for the Modal System S2
 42Modalities in the Word Language
 43Modalities and Variables in the Word Language
 44Quine on Modalities
 45Conclusions
 SUPPLEMENT
 AEmpiricism, Semantics, and Ontology
 BMeaning Postulates
 COn Belief-Sentences. Reply to Alonzo Church
 DMeaning and Synonymy in Natural Languages
 EOn Some Concepts of Pragmatics
 BIBLIOGRAPHY
 INDEX


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