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glossary..H

hack
cut or chop roughly, mangle
(Computing, 1)
to write a program hastily with little concern for elegance and structure
(Computing 2)
to attempt to gain unauthorised access to computer systems, usually through electronic networks
hacker
Someone who hacks.
The connotations of this term vary widely depending on who is using it. In the tradition now associated with the "open source" movement (which credits itself as the main source of the software infrastructure for the internet) a hacker is a hero who has made significant contributions to the development of open source software. In other milieu the term may be associated with over hasty and poorly engineered software development. In the popular press the term has been primarily associated with the practice of attempting illegally to penetrate computer systems and networks (i.e. nothing much to do with software development). A vigorous campaign by open source advocates to dissuade the press from this usage has had some marginal success (so small that I can't bring to mind the term which they are supposed to use instead).
halting problem
the problem of deciding for an arbitrary Turing machine and initial configuration (tape + position on tape + initial state) whether the Turing machine started in that configuration would ever halt.
historicism
(according to Karl Popper)
a label for those kinds of social philosophy which engage in sweeping historical prophesy and assert the inevitability of the prophesied course of history.
(according to Isaiah Berlin)
the view that "human thought and action are fully intelligible only in relation to their historical context"
HOL
Higher Order Logic (1)
A logical system, usually a Type Theory, with multiple ranges of quantification (usually called types) some of which contain sets or functions. See also: Church's Simple Theory of Types, Pure Type Systems
Higher Order Logic (2)
A proof tool, originally developed by the Hardware Verification Group at The University of Cambridge Computer Laboratories. Now available as several variants (HOL88, HOL90, HOL98, HOL Light), supporting the construction and checking of proofs in Higher Order Logic. There are also many more proof tools for variants of Higher Order Logic or for logical Type Theories which do not go under the name "HOL". There is an annual international workshop concerned with the development and application of these proof tools.
hyper-rational
An exacting standard of rationality based on the assertion only of formally proven analytic propositions.
hypostasis
an underlying substance, as opposed to an attribute or that which is insubstantial
hypostatise
reify, possibly fallaciously


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