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glossary..D

Dao
(often spelt "Tao") An ancient Chineese philosophy or way of life, involving Wu-Wei a principle of spontaneity, Yin-Yang, the unity of opposites, and Te a kind of inner virtue.
de
(latin) of or from
de dicto
an ascription of a property or modality to a proposition
de re
an ascription of a property or modality to a thing
decidable
A set is decidable iff there is an effective procedure for deciding whether any object is or is not a member of the set.
deduction
the process of reasoning from premises to conclusions which are logically entailed by those premises. The conclusions of correct deductive inferences cannot possibly be false if the premises are true. See: What is Logic?".
see also:
induction
deductive
by deduction
deductively sound
an inference is deductively sound if it is not logically possible that the premises be true and the conclusion false
definiendum
in a definition, that which is defined
definiens
the body of a definition which gives the meaning to be assigned to the definiendum
definition
a statement in which a meaning (the definiens) is assigned to a word, symbol, phrase, or expression (the definiendum)
deflation
letting the wind out
deflationary conception of truth
the view that the predicate true serves only limited purposes, such as indirect or compendious endorsement and disquotation.
democracy
a system of government involving all, or a large part, of the people governed
See also:
participatory democracy
representative democracy
denote
signify, indicate, mean, convey, name
{philosophy)
after Kripke, a distinction is sometimes made between denotation (which involves reference via a description) and naming in which reference is made without description
denotational semantics (computing)
a semantics for a programming or other language, given by defining mappings from each syntactic category into suitable semantic domains. The mappings are usually expected to be compositional, and "mathematical" semantic domains are often preferred (in which case it may be called a mathematical semantics).
deontic logic
a logic for reasoning about obligations and rights
designate
serve as the name or distinctive mark of
designator
a name or description which designates, or refers to, something
disjunct
one of the immediate constituent formulae or sentences in a disjunction, e.g. in "A or B", "A" and "B" are the disjuncts.
disjunction
a formula or sentence whose principle operator is logical (inclusive) or, e.g. "x>5 x<6"
disquotation
the removal of quotation marks, typically by the use of the predicate "is true", e.g.: "x>5 x<6" is true
disquotation principle
that "'S' is true iff S" for all sentences S
dogmatic
given to asserting or imposing personal opinions
dogmatism
a tendency to be dogmatic
dogmatist
a dogmatic person
(according to pyrrhonism and Sextus Empiricus)
someone who is not a sceptic, and is willing to assert at least one proposition to be true
domain
a sphere of control or influence
- of a function
the collection of values for which the function is defined
- of a relation (in set theory) -
the set of elements or values which relate to some other element under the relation
- in formal semantics
a collection of values which represent the meanings of a certain class of linguistic entities.
dynamic
concerning motion or change
dynamic semantics
that aspect of the semantics of a programming language which is concerned with the effects of executing the program. Also used for the non-static aspects of the semantics of formal specification languages.


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